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A Timeline on the History of Educational Technology . Created by Tawana Stiff EDUC 7100 Instructor: Dr. Abbie Brown. Timeline Strands From 1900 to Present. Strand 1 : Toffler’s Wave Theory Strand 2 : Technology Strand 3 : Work Strand 4 : Education Strand 5 : Society and Culture

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a timeline on the history of educational technology

A Timeline on the History of Educational Technology

Created by Tawana Stiff

EDUC 7100

Instructor: Dr. Abbie Brown

timeline strands from 1900 to present
Timeline Strands From 1900 to Present
  • Strand 1: Toffler’s Wave Theory
  • Strand 2: Technology
  • Strand 3: Work
  • Strand 4: Education
  • Strand 5: Society and Culture
  • Strand 6: Political
timeline 1900 1910
Timeline1900-1910

Wave Theory: Agricultural Age/

Industrial Age

The 1st Wave still exists but has been losing momentum to the uprising 2nd Wave since 1650-1750

http://www.2dix.com/view/view.php?urllink=http://scg.co.sarasota.fl.us/OED/pdf%20file/thirdwave.pdf&searchx=alvin toffler first wave

Education:

Learning Theories

-Montessori Method

-Pragmatism

Methods of Instruction- Scientific and Reflective Problem Solving

http://dewey.pragmatism.org

-adaptive schoolwork to accommodate individuality, sensory discrimination

http://www.montessori.edu/

1910

1900

Society and Culture

People relied on radio, books, and sports for entertainment due to limited technology

Multi-generational families and families with lodgers was common http://www.pobronson.com/factbook/pages/101.html

Simon Newcomb’s statement denying that flight would be achievable led Americans to doubt the capacity of future technology and resulted in very little attention to the Wright Brothers early on

http://www.kyrene.org/schools/brisas/sunda/decade/1900.htm

Work

Farmers represented 38% of work force:

http://www.agclassroom.org/gan/timeline/farmers_land.htm

Horse-powered farms becomes common in place of pioneer farms

http://www.lhf.org/m/

timeline 1900 1910 continued

Technology

Inventions: Air conditioner, lie detector test, radio receiver, compact vacuum cleaner, tractor, windshield wiper, instant coffee teabags

http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/twentieth.htm

Rise of the gas powered automobile…first Ford Model T

http://www.kyrene.org/schools/brisas/sunda/decade/1900.htm

Plastic is invented

http://history1900s.about.com/od/timelines/tp/1900timeline.htm

Timeline1900-1910 continued

1910

1900

Politics

Race riots led to formation of NAACP in pursuit of social equality http://history1900s.about.com/od/1900s/qt/naacp.htm

1901 President McKinley is assassination by anarchist leads to

Anarchist Act which allows for the exclusion of immigrants on the basis of their beliefs

1907 Expatriation Act: Women may lose American citizenship as a result of marrying a man of different nationality

http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/immigration_chron.cfm

The Socialist Party of America is formed

http://www.poetpatriot.com/timeline/tmlnstamer1900.htm

timeline 1910 1920
Timeline1910-1920

Education:

Learning Theories

- Pragmatismhttp://dewey.pragmatism.org/

- Connectionism

http://tip.psychology.org/thorn.html

Methods of Instruction

– self activity, individualization, motivation

-adaptive schoolwork to accommodate individuality, sensory discrimination

Politics

World War I

http://www.worldwar-1.net/

19th Amendment grants women the right to vote

http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=63

Wave Theory: Industrial Age

The 2nd Wave dominates http://ogs.academia.edu/jreichard/Papers/375530/American_Religion_Deindustrialization_and_the_Tofflerian_Socioeconomic_Wave_Model

1910

1920

Society and Culture

Self expression via radio programming for music/talk and extended to war communications

http://www.californiahistoricalradio.com/100years.html

The Flying Squadron of America promoted the temperance movement in the United States

http://www.in.gov/library/2838.htm

Work:

Installation of the first moving assembly line at Ford Motors

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dt13as.html

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire results in the death of many women and girls due to unsafe work conditions

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/triangle/trianglefire.html

Technology

Vacuum cleaner, electric toaster, and refrigerator invented

Poisonous gases utilized for chemical warfare for first time during WWI

Mass production of vehicles and invention of the first electric starter motor by General Motors engineers

http://heritage10s.weebly.com/science--technology.html

timeline 1920 1930
Timeline 1920 -1930

Education:

Learning Theories

- Connectionism

http://tip.psychology.org/thorn.html

Methods of Instruction

– self activity, individualization, motivation

-Progressive Education movement influenced by John Dewey who advocated interactive learning http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/legacy/research/edu20/moments/1920lintner.html?cms_page=edu20/moments/1920lintner.html

Politics

The 18th Amendment is passed - prohibiting the use or sell of alcohol results in rebellion http://history1900s.about.com/od/1920s/p/prohibition.htm

The Red Scare arises as patriots fear communist will violently take over

http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/saccov/redscare.html

Wave Theory: Industrial Age

The 2nd Wave dominateshttp://ogs.academia.edu/jreichard/Papers/375530/American_Religion_Deindustrialization_and_the_Tofflerian_Socioeconomic_Wave_Model

1920

1930

Work

Welfare Capitalism enables corporations to compete for skilled laborers by offering benefits and other incentives

http://www.answers.com/topic/welfare-capitalism

Decline in organized labor unions as a result of more powerful corporations http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/135395/the_war_at_home_the_decline_of_organized.html?cat=37

The Stock Market crash results in economic depression and higher rates of unemployment

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1564.html

:

Technology

Taylorism-based advances in machinery (e.g., assembly line)for the purpose of achieving unprecedented mass distribution

http://lcweb2.loc.gov:8081/ammem/amrlhtml/intaylor.html

Mass consumption of battery powered radios which could be utilized to hear broadcastings of news, weather, and political communications

http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ug00/3on1/radioshow/1920radio.htm

Society and Culture:

The Sexual Revolution is elucidated by the female ‘Flapper’ who seeks social liberation for womenhttp://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/history/chapter16section3.rhtml

Symbolic Interactionism affects views on individual roles within family structure, society and communication.

http://family.jrank.org/pages/1677/Symbolic-Interactionism-Symbolic-Interactionism-Family-Studies.html

timeline 1930 1940
Timeline1930 - 1940

Education:

Learning Theories

-Pragmatism

http://dewey.pragmatism.org/

-Learner Motivation Theories using behaviorist based stimulus-response methodologies

http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2250/Motivation.html

Motion Picture Project of the ACE leads to more efficient and affective instructional techniques including films

http://www.ucalgary.ca/hic/issues/vol6/4

Wave Theory: Industrial Age

The 2nd Wave dominateshttp://ogs.academia.edu/jreichard/Papers/375530/American_Religion_Deindustrialization_and_the_Tofflerian_Socioeconomic_Wave_Model

Politics

The New Deal is passed by the U.S. Congress to offer economic relief and recovery

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Deal

Good Neighbor Policy institutionalized to promote positive relations http://www.ushistory.org/us/50a.asp

1930

1940

Society and Culture

The Great Depression causes people to engage in books, board games and gambling to escape their sad realities

http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade30.html

The 1930s World Fairs inspired hope and forward movement towards a futuristic life style

http://www.archdaily.com/120109/designing-tomorrow-america%E2%80%99s-world%E2%80%99s-fairs-of-the-1930s/

Social Realism as an artistic means of depicting social injustices http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/americanscene/

Work:

Workers are given the right to form labor unions and collectively bargain under the Wagner Act of 1935

http://www.civics-online.org/library/formatted/texts/wagner_act.html

Wages and Hours Act protects employees from being overworked and underpaid

http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Wages+and+Hours+Act

Technology

The FCC designates part of the FM band for educational purposeshttp://mlmiller.myweb.uga.edu/timeline/1930s.html

The First Jet Engine is built

http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/1930s.html

timeline 1940 1950
Timeline1940 - 1950

Technology

First atomic bomb is detonated and kills thousands of civilians

http://nobelprize.org/educational/peace/nuclear_weapons/readmore.html

Audio-Visual Devices utilized by military during WWII

http://www.jstor.org/pss/302202

99First overhead projector used in police identification work and then later for educational purposes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overhead_projector

Politics

George –Barden Act of 1946 increases funding for vocational education

http://www.okcareertech.org/history/history3.htm

Lanham Act of 1940-public housing for war workers is federally funded

http://www.texashousing.org/phdebate/past9.html

Wave Theory: Industrial Age

The 2nd Wave dominateshttp://ogs.academia.edu/jreichard/Papers/375530/American_Religion_Deindustrialization_and_the_Tofflerian_Socioeconomic_Wave_Model

1940

1950

Society and Culture

The number of men participating in the war resulted in the increase of female workers in the labor force by at least 33%

http://gozips.uakron.edu/~aw11/aw11module_4a.pdf

WWII raised environmental awareness an d people were encouraged to recycle materials that could aid in war production

http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture21.html

  • Education:
  • Learning Theories
  • -Pragmatismhttp://dewey.pragmatism.org
  • Methods of Instruction
  • Audio-visual (films, radio)
  • -Note-taking

Work:

Military Industrial Congressional Complex resulted in manufacturing companies receiving monies for production on war weaponry

http://www.fff.org/freedom/0595d.asp

War Production Board limited and placed constraints on factories for the purpose of conserving war material

http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/1305/American-Consumer-RISE-CONSUMER-CULTURE.html

timeline 1950 1960

Education:

  • Learning Theories
  • Skinner’s Operant Conditioning (Reinforcement) Theoryhttp://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/introopcond.htm
  • -Bloom’s Taxonomy
  • Methods of Instruction
  • -Curriculum/objective based instruction
  • Instructional Television
  • -Computers
  • Conducting Experiments
  • -Projects
  • -Watching Films
  • -Participating in class discussions
  • http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy
Timeline1950 - 1960

Politics

Separate But Equal Doctrine is reversed, resulting in school integration

http://www.childbook.com/US-Education-History-and-Time-line-s/102.htm

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 maintains preference quota system and places limitations on Eastern Hemisphere immigrants

http://www.fairus.org/site/PageNavigator/facts/research_us_laws/

National Defense Education Act of 1958

http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html

Wave Theory: Industrial Age/Information Age The 2nd Wave begins to diminish as the 3rd Wave gains forcehttp://ogs.academia.edu/jreichard/Papers/375530/American_Religion_Deindustrialization_and_the_Tofflerian_Socioeconomic_Wave_Model

1950

1960

Work:

Advancements in road construction allowed men to travel further to work (for higher wages) while wives took care of domestic duties (Thttp://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_did_the_baby_boom_affect_American_society_during_the_1950s

Mechanical Machine for harvesting cotton lessens the need for manual labor in rural areas

http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe50s/machines_15.html

timeline 1950 1960 continued
Timeline1950 – 1960 continued

Technology

The Soviet Union launched Sputnik which led to greater focus on Math and Science in schools

http://www.npr.org/2011/01/26/133249640/Sputniks-Influence-On-U-S-Education-Society

Interstate Highway System built and expanded to allow for rapid transportation of war materials and provide evacuation routes as needed

http://geography.about.com/od/urbaneconomicgeography/a/interstates.htm

The Computer chip is invented http://www.listzblog.com/top_ten_world_changing_stories_of_20th_century_list.html

1950

1960

Society and Culture

Great Migration: African Americans migrating north for factory jobs and pursuit of a higher standard of living.

http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/27.html

Nuclear family structure was maintained as a result of Baby Boom. http://newton.uor.edu/Departments&Programs/EconomicDept/macunovich/baby_boomers.pdf

Launching of Sputnik caused Cold War mentality in which Americans lived in fear of the Soviet Union’s technological superiority http://regentsprep.org/regents/core/questions/questions.cfm?Course=ushg&TopicCode=6b

timeline 1960 1970
Timeline1960 - 1970

Politics

Civil Rights Act of 1964 declares it unlawful for educational institutions to discriminate based on race

http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/hq43e4.html

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1965 expands eligibility criteria for becoming a legal immigrant

http://www.cis.org/articles/1995/back395.html

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act increases federal educational funding

http://www.childbook.com/US-Education-History-and-Time-line-s/102.htm

Education:

Learning Theories

- Behaviorism

Methods of Instruction

-Passive Learning and self-pace instruction based on stimulus response model

http://education.gsu.edu/ctl/FLC/Foundations/Overview.pdf

-Individualized, Student-centered

-Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction

-Audio Tutorial

-Computer Assisted Instruction

-Formative and Summative Evaluations

http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED383308.pdf

1960

1970

Wave Theory: Industrial Age/Information Age The 2nd Wave begins to diminish as the 3rd Wave gains forcehttp://ogs.academia.edu/jreichard/Papers/375530/American_Religion_Deindustrialization_and_the_Tofflerian_Socioeconomic_Wave_Model

Work:

General Motors, Exxon, and Ford accounted for 12% of the nations manufacturing assets

Average worker had an income increase of 50%

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3468302205.html

timeline 1960 1970 continued
Timeline1960 – 1970 continued

Technology

PLATO computer system developed for educational purposes

http://thinkofit.com/plato/dwplato.htm#plato

Enhancement in Random Access Memory resulted in the production of smaller and more affordable computers

http://www.techradar.com/news/world-of-tech/6-technologies-to-thank-the-1960s-for-650980

Birth Control Pill approved

http://www.listzblog.com/top_ten_world_changing_stories_of_20th_century_list.html

Inventions: artificial heart, calculator, compact disc, valium

http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/modern_2.htm

1960

1970

Society and Culture

Conflict Theory

The launching of Sputnik created a Space Race mentality resulting in many Americans choosing cohesiveness and collaboration in a patriot effort to move forward as a people

Civil Rights Act expanded social progressive movements, heightened awareness, and inspired Hippie movement, anti-war protest, and feminist demonstrations by people pursuing equal treatment and freedom of self-expression

http://www.history.com/topics/1960sand http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/modules/1960s/index.cfm

Post-Vietnam mentality was “Make Love not War”

http://onlineessays.com/essays/politics/political-and-social-effects-that-shaped-the-60s-generation.php

Issues involving population control, energy, conservation, and environmental health lead to Environmental Movement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_movement_in_the_United_States

The age of sexual freedom resulted in the eating disorder era as women tried to achieve a sexy look (e.g., mini skirts, thin bodies, etc.)

http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/teaching_backgrounders/body_image/the_way_we_look.pdf

timeline 1970 1980
Timeline1970 - 1980

Education:

Learning Theories

-Jean Piaget’s Genetic Epistemology Theory on child development http://tip.psychology.org/piaget.html

-Behaviorist

-Cognitive

Methods of Instruction

-Passive Learning and self-pace instruction based on stimulus response model

http://education.gsu.edu/ctl/FLC/Foundations/Overview.pdf

--Individualized, Student-centered

-Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction

-Audio Tutorial

-Computer Assisted Instruction

http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED383308.pdf

Wave Theory: Industrial Age/Information Age The 2nd Wave begins to diminish as the 3rd Wave gains force

http://ogs.academia.edu/jreichard/Papers/375530/American_Religion_Deindustrialization_and_the_Tofflerian_Socioeconomic_Wave_Model

1970

1980

Politics

Serrano vs. Priest highlights the inequity in schooling produced by property based funding

http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/er/fm_crisis.html

Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972 declares it unlawful to deny individuals participation in educational program/activity based on discriminatory practices

http://www.dol.gov/oasam/regs/statutes/titleix.htm

1978 Proposition 13

1975 Education for all Handicapped Children Act

Voting age lowered by 26th Amendment

timeline 1970 1980 continued
Timeline1970 – 1980continued

Work:

EPA regulates the use of asbestos in chemical plants

http://www.mesotheliomasymptoms.com/asbestos-chemical-plants

Industrial decentralization involved the closing down of city factories (e.g., auto plants) which required workers to relocate their families

http://www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/Race/R_Overview/R_Overview.htm

Technology

Apple II computers introduced in schools

http://www.indiana.edu/~idt/shortpapers/documents/ITduring20.html

Inventions: Micro-processer, video game console, word processor, email, digital camera, pocket calculator

http://www.techradar.com/news/world-of-tech/7-technologies-to-thank-the-1970s-for-657269?artc_pg=2

1970

1980

Society and Culture

The “Single male breadwinner” family lessens as teen pregnancies and working women arise

http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6798

Vietnam resulted in anti-war demonstrations

Earth Day celebrated for the first time as a result of raised environmental awareness

http://library.thinkquest.org/J0111064/70events.htm

Watergate scandal results in political cynicism

http://www.enotes.com/history/discuss/how-were-americans-affected-by-watergate-scan-84281

timeline 1980 1990
Timeline1980 - 1990

Society and Culture

The Aids outbreak and level of cocaine addiction resulted in an emphasis on safe sex/mass condom distributions and “Just Say No” campaigns since it was believed to come from immoral behaviors as such

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestic_policy_of_the_Ronald_Reagan_administration

Divorce , single parent, and two-income households became more common

http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/decade80.html

Environmental Justice movement to address unfair placement of low income, minority communities

http://www.avoiceonline.org/environmental/history.html

Wave Theory: Information Age/Communication and Biotechnology Age The 3rd and 4th Wave coexist

http://www.foet.org/lectures/lecture-hydrogen-economy.html

1980

1990

  • Education:
  • Learning Theories
  • Andragogy based on self concept, experience and readiness for learning
  • http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm
  • Cognitive approaches used external behaviors to evaluate mental processes
  • http://education.gsu.edu/ctl/FLC/Foundations/Overview.pdf
  • Methods of Instruction
  • - Activities for Storing and Retrieving information
  • -Metacognition (e.g., problem solving, journal writing),Self-directed learning, Direct Instruction, Individualized, Student-centered
  • ,Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction, Audio Tutorial
  • and Computer Assisted Instruction
  • http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED383308.pdf
timeline 1980 1990 continued
Timeline1980 – 1990 continued

Politics

Refugee Act of 1980 allows refugee admittance to the country for humanitarian reasons

Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 made it unlawful to hire illegal immigrants

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_Reform_and_Control_Act_of_1986

Department of Education Organization Act of 1980 increases the federal role in education

http://www.k12academics.com/us-education-legislation/department-education-organization-act

Work

Reaganomics results in tax cuts for corporations and leads to capitalization

http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2007/01/the-four-pillars-of-reaganomics

Labor surplus causes Labor unions to lose momentum and collective bargaining powers

http://www.marxists.org/history/etol/document/fit/usunions.htm

Increased immigration creates displacement in the American workforce

http://www.fairus.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=16983&security=1601&news_iv_ctrl=1017

1980

1990

Technology

IBM’s first computer for personal use

Instructional Television (ITV) is accessible to 70% of teachers

Classification and greater usage of various instructional media results from digitization and microelectronics

Emergence of broadcasting communication systems (e.g., satellite, computers, interactive video, etc.)

http://mlmiller.myweb.uga.edu/timeline/1980s.html

First computer virus

http://www.wired.com/thisdayintech/2009/11/1110fred-cohen-first-computer-virus/

First laptop computer

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2005-01-16/open-space/27853745_1_first-laptop-ultralite-compaq-computer

Significant increase in use of micro computers in schools

http://www.indiana.edu/~idt/shortpapers/documents/ITduring20.html

Inventions: Hepatitis B vaccine, Apple Macintosh, soft bifocal contact lens, synthetic skin, abortion pill, Prozac, HD televisionhttp://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/twentieth.htm

timeline 1990 2000

Education:

Learning Theories

-Constructivist

-Behavioral/Motivational

Methods of Instruction

-Situated learning, collaborative learning, authentic problem solving

-Emphasis on reinforcement, learner choices, self-efficacy

---Individualized, Student-centered activities (such as presentation or research papers)

http://education.gsu.edu/ctl/FLC/Foundations/Overview.pdf

-Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction

-Audio Tutorial

-Computer Assisted Instruction

http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED383308.pdf

Timeline1990 - 2000

Wave Theory: Information Age/Communication and Biotechnology Age The 3rd and 4th Wave coexist

http://www.foet.org/lectures/lecture-hydrogen-economy.html

1990

2000

Society and Culture

1999 Columbine High school shooting inspires schools to heighten level of safety and security

http://www.nctsn.org/nctsn_assets/pdfs/UrbanED_Managing_Threats_MWongPhD.pdf

The “Youth Trend” inspired by media icons results in frivolous spending and the desire for outer beauty. This was highlighted in the fact that over 65% of plastic surgery procedures were performed on people with a household income of $50k or less. Tanning, “youth serums”, weight loss, and health fads also become major part of society in this decade.

http://www.ast.org/publications/Journal%20Archive/2009/11_November_2009/PlasticHistory.pdf

And

http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/teaching_backgrounders/body_image/the_way_we_look.pdf

timeline 1990 2000 continued
Timeline1990 – 2000 continued

Politics

Massachusetts Education reform Act results in common curriculum and high stakes testing programs across the nation

http://www.doemass.org/edreform/5year/default.html

Higher Education Act amendment requires institutions to provide report cards on teacher education

http://www.naicu.edu/special_initiatives/hea101/news_room/teacher-preparation-report-cards

Work:

Growth in rural factories resulted in more jobs in the following industries: food, tobacco, textile, metal, chemicals

http://www.kansascityfed.org/publicat/mse/MSE_1201.pdf

There was a rise of infomercials as marketing corporations advertised “get rich quick” schemes, beauty products, and other items

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infomercial

1990

2000

Technology

The World Wide Web is created http://www.listzblog.com/top_ten_world_changing_stories_of_20th_century_list.html

White boards replace blackboards

http://www.usmarkerboard.com/History-of-Whiteboards

The First Smart Board is introduced

Mozilla 1.0 is the first commercial web browser

Inventions: web TV, Pentium processor, the Smart Pill, HIV protease inhibitor, Viagra

http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/modern_5.htm

Smart phone introduced

http://www.answers.com/topic/smartphone

timeline 2000 present
Timeline2000 - Present

Education:

Learning Theories

- Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory

Methods of Instruction

-Experiments, word games, computer/telephone conferencing, dialogue, instruments, CD-Rom, multimedia, hands on, role-playing, graphics/charts http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html

---Individualized, Student-centered

-Keller’s Personalized System of Instruction

-Audio Tutorial

-Computer Assisted Instruction

http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED383308.pdf

Wave Theory: Communication and Biotechnology The 4th Wave is prevalent in today’s society

2000

Present

Politics

Patriot Act established to tighten up homeland security

http://epic.org/privacy/terrorism/hr3162.html

2002 No Child Left Behind establishes minimal school performance standards that must be met to avoid government take over

http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/pg1.html#sec1001

2008 Barack Obama elected as the nation’s 44th president is the first African American to hold this office ; an advocate of “Race to the Top” to improve schooling.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/fact-sheet-race-top

Technology

Inventions: AbioCor artificial heart, artificial liver, birth control patch, date rape drug spotter, hybrid car http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/twentieth.htm

Stem cells created without the use of human embryos

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/stem-cells-breakthrough.html

timeline 2000 present continued
Timeline2000 – Present continued

Work:

Teachers retire at high rate as result of being stripped of Collective bargaining rights and fear of losing post-retirement benefits (e.g., Teachers) http://www.recallscottwalker.com/2011/04/teachers-retiring-at-high-rate-many-because-of-collective-bargaining-changes/

Projected depletion of Social Security funds due to Baby Boomers reaching eligibility age

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/25/business/economy/25social.html

Over a quarter million teachers face layoff 2010

2001 recession results in the plummeting of factory work resulting in 1.3 million jobs lost

http://www.kansascityfed.org/publicat/mse/MSE_1201.pdf

Industrial robots utilized in plants to do work done by people in the past

http://www.foet.org/lectures/lecture-hydrogen-economy.html

Decrease in median household income

http://www.epi.org/economic_snapshots/entry/webfeatures_snapshots_20080827/

2000

Present

Society and Culture

Al-Qaeda attacks on 911 create a sense of fear in the American people and causes us to question U.S. intelligence and capacity to respond to/prevent future attacks (2001)

http://www.jfs.tku.edu.tw/8-1/E01.pdf

“Free Individual in a Free Society” has resulted in gothic appearance, sex changes, music and talk shows regarding controversial issues once considered taboo , etc.

http://www.americanfamilytraditions.com/values.htm

Fear of the apocalypse has shaped media, films, and even revived the “Carpe Diem” or live life to the fullest mentality

http://newsflavor.com/world/asia/the-japan-tragedy-and-december-21-2012/

Family structures: same sex, blended family, remarried, single parenthttp://www.2dix.com/view/view.php?urllink=http://scg.co.sarasota.fl.us/OED/pdf%20file/thirdwave.pdf&searchx=alvin toffler first wave