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Improving Education for English Learners: Research Based Approaches:. Chapter 3 English Language Development: Issues and Implementation at Grades 6-12 Susana Dutro & Kate Kinsella. Today’s format…. Input/information Discussion with a Seasonal Partner Small group discussion.
Improving Education for English Learners: Research Based Approaches: Chapter 3 English Language Development: Issues and Implementation at Grades 6-12 Susana Dutro & Kate Kinsella
Today’s format… • Input/information • Discussion with a Seasonal Partner • Small group discussion
Review of Chapter 2 • Foundations for ELD Instruction for young learners. • Designing ELD Instruction and Assessment • Examples of effective ELD instruction • Professional Development
Rethinking English Language Instruction for Adolescent English LearnersThe authors include: • A discussion of the l__________ ch_________ faced by adolescent English learners • An overview of the d_________among English learners in grades 6-12 & standards-based English proficiency levels • A rationale for i_________ E____ in the secondary context • An analysis of common course p_________ for adolescent English learners & the potential sh___________ of those placements • A m_________ for instructed ELD in the secondary school context.
Completed Cloze Activity #1 • A discussion of the linguistic challenges faced by adolescent English learners • An overview of the diversityamong English learners in grades 6-12 & standards-based English proficiency levels • A rationale for instructed ELD in the secondary context • An analysis of common course placements for adolescent English learners & the potential shortcomingsof those placements • A model for instructed ELD in the secondary school context.
I. Linguistic Challenges for Adolescent English Learners a. Complex Linguistic Knowledge (p. 153) “Adolescent English learners face a particularly daunting task. To succeed in schooling, they must gain a multifaceted knowledge of the English language.” p. 153 6 aspects: • Phonology • Morphology • Vocabulary • Syntax • Formal & Informal Discourse Styles • Academic & Social Functions
I. Linguistic Challenges for Adolescent English Learners (continued) b. Academic English (pp. 153-155) “Academic English requires sufficient background knowledge to apply general knowledge of words differently across subject areas.” p. 154 “We argue that to accelerate the language proficiency of English learners, teachers of all disciplines must make “visible” the otherwise “invisible” skills of content-specific academic language.” p. 154
I. Linguistic Challenges for Adolescent English Learners (continued) c. Gaps in Language Proficiency (p. 155) Many English learners develop oral fluency for “face to face communication,” but cannot perform task that require academic language proficiency. “This finding suggests that although a high number of adolescent English learners are gaining fluency in English as measured by the CELDT, a disturbingly high percentage of these same learners are demonstrating a limited command of the vocabulary and structures of academic English necessary for successful schooling.” p. 155
Processing Time • Read slides 6-8 to yourself. • Using three index cards, write down any reaction you have to the information on each slide. • “Give one Get one” activity. Music will indicate when you will move to one of your Seasonal Partners to share each other’s thoughts. (Timed-pair-share) Each person has two minutes. • Return to your table and share with your group (3 minutes).
II. Diversity of Adolescent English Learners (pp. 156-157) Adolescent English learners come with a range of experiences including: • Literacy and content knowledge in the primary language • Previous experience in American schools • English language knowledge • A “one-size fits all” approach will not work & particular attention needs to be paid to Long Term EL’s (p. 157)
Levels of English Proficiencypp. 158-163 • Explanation of levels of English proficiency adapted from Systematic English Language Development (Dutro 2005a) • ELD standards indicate a student’s instructional level along a continuum of English skills • Look at the West Ed comparison standards of ELD & ELA. Carmen Garces will present an overview of the West Ed document. • (Table Discussion, 5 minutes) How do you envision utilizing the comparison standards with your teachers?
III. A Rationale for Instructed ELDpp. 163-166 Adolescent English learners must have a c__________ second language base if they are to be successful in standards-basedcourse work. Consistent, e_______, and purposeful language instruction with r________ structured practice is necessary for adolescent English learners to develop a competent command of school-based terms and internalize the forms of academic language.
Completed Cloze Activity #2 Adolescent English learners must have a competent second language base if they are to be successful in standards-basedcourse work. Consistent, explicit, and purposeful language instruction with regular structured practice is necessary for adolescent English learners to develop a competent command of school-based terms and internalize the forms of academic language.
III. A Rationale for Instructed ELD ELD Instruction: Language is in the foreground and content is in the background. Content Instruction: Content is in the foreground and language is in the background. (p. 163-164)
Figure 3.2 Blueprint for Instruction of Adolescent English Learners p. 165 Explicit Language Instruction For Content Learning Purpose: Teach language needed… Content: Determined by lesson & student knowledge of English Teachers Need: tools to plan lang. & content learning. Support through collaborative planning
IV. Common Student Placements and Potential Shortcomings • English Language Development (ELD) p. 166 Many adolescent EL’s do not receive ELD support once they have reached upper intermediate level on the CELDT • Reading Intervention pp. 167-168 Often based on CST or placement test without consideration for the English level or primary language skills. Long-Term EL’s in Reading Intervention courses are not necessarily addressing the language needs. (Table discussion) • Sheltered content area instruction pp. 168-169 Focus almost exclusively on access to the core/content. Language learning often becomes secondary or a non-existent part of instruction. Opportunity to develop the skills for speaking & writing about the content is lost. (Refer back to the Blueprint on page 165) • Special Education p. 169 IEP’s for English learners need to include language proficiency goals and objectivesbased on their level of proficiency.
V. A Model for Explicit Language Instruction • Purposeful uses of language identified in ELD standards (language functions) (Figure 3.3 p. 171) Purposes of language • To perform cognitive tasks • To express thinking orally and in writing • To inform text structure • To engage in social and academic conversation Relevance to EL Instruction: • Participate in discussion • Describe, explain, and elaborate • Predict • Express action and time relationships • Draw Conclusions (extended explanation pp. 172-174)
“Students must learn the meanings of “bricks” (words). In contrast, they must learn how to use “mortar” (grammar).” p.175
V. A Model for Explicit Language Instruction pp. 171-199 ELD Recommendations from pp. 181-199 Small group participation in sequential order
Lastly…. “Adolescents whose second-language learning needs are conscientiously met can and will make strides in their secondary schooling better equipped to realize their academic and real-life goals.” -Dutro & Kinsella, p. 199