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Welcome to Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570 Literacy for English Language Learners. Instructor: Marcia.Gaudet SFSD K-12 ELL Instructional Coach. Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570 Class #2 – Friday, June 24 • 12:00 to 3:30. Circle Up – Greeting, Sharing, ABC Pop Share Book & Sample books
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Welcome to Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570Literacy for English Language Learners Instructor: Marcia.Gaudet SFSD K-12 ELL Instructional Coach
Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570Class #2 – Friday, June 24 • 12:00 to 3:30 • Circle Up – Greeting, Sharing, ABC Pop • Share Book & Sample books • The Danger of the Single Story • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D9Ihs241zeg • Discussion of reading: Peregoy 5, CAL 1–4, Tucker • Discuss Elizabeth Skelton - Intro to TPRS - DVD • Today Turn in: Reading Reflection • For Next Thursday: Read Peregory 6, CAL 5,6,7 • Observation Papers Due
Red Apple/Augustana EDUC 570Literacy for ELL - Course Overview • June & July 1- Reading focus for ELLs • Understanding the challenges for ELLs with no prior literacy: assessments & research-based strategies • July 6 & 7- Writing focus for ELLs • Challenges of teaching ELLs with no prior literacy in their first language and research-based strategies • August 2 & 3 –WIDA, Collier & Presentations • whose reading and writing levels are below grade level - How to adapt grade level curr for ELLs to teach content standards so they are progressing in literacy skills
Course Outline – June 30 & July 1Reading Focus for ELLs • Thursday, June 30 • Peregoy – Chapter 6, pages 200- 223 • TPR Lesson demonstrations begin! • Friday, July 1 • Reflection paper on reading for week due • Observation Paper Due – Include language level of students • CAL Text: What’s Different: Chapters 5,6, & 7
Stephen Krashen’s 5-pronged theory of Language Aquisition • 1. Language acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process much like how children pick up their first language. • 2. The monitor: If students learn language through rules rather than naturally fluency will be delayed. • 3. The natural order of acquisition: ELs will first acquire that which has the most meaning, form comes later. • 4. Providing comprehensible input – to acquire language. • 5. The affective filter: a cognitive shut-down if anxious.
Classroom Strategies to Promote Early Literacy • Holistic strategies • Creating a Literacy-Rich Classroom • Books, books, books • Daily Routines • Reading Aloud to Students With your grade level:Brainstorm ideas you might use for each of the areas above with the age group and content area you are/will be teaching. Make a list you can share! P 176-180
Augustana EDUC 397/597Literacy for ELL - Course OverviewMTWR - MC 164 6 - 9:30pm • Week #1 - Reading focus for ELLs • Understanding the challenges for ELLs with no prior literacy and research-based strategies • Week #2 - Writing focus for ELLs • Challenges of teaching ELLs with no prior literacy in their first language and research-based strategies • Week #3 - Literacy Development for ELLs • Grammar and Vocabulary - differentiation for ELLs • Week #4 - WIDA + Differentiation for ELLs • whose reading and writing levels are below grade level - How to adapt grade level curr for ELLs to teach content standards so they are progressing in literacy skills
Course Outline - Week #1Reading Focus for ELLs • Monday, January 3 • Introductions, Course Requirements, Challenges to ELL Literacy! • Select Multicultural book to present to class. Sign up today. • Sign up for preferences for ELL Teacher observation. • Tuesday, January 4 • Peregoy - pp 152-182: Emergent Literacy: English Learners Beginning to Write and Read - Basic steps a students goes through in learning to read. • Wednesday, January 5 • Peregoy - pp 183-199:Emergent Literacy • Skelton: Pages 1-11: Making content comprehensible - Watch DVD on TPR! • Thursday, January 6 • Peregoy, pp 200-223: Words and Meanings: English Learners Vocabulary Development. Reflection paper on reading for week due + Sign up for TPR! • Skelton: Pages 12-23 & 19-31
Our Challenge In the SFSD we are serving four types of Els 1) ELs born in the U.S. and educated here 2) ELs new to the U.S. with strong educational backgrounds 3) ELs new to the U.S. with interrupted education but have literacy in their first language 4) ELs new to the U.S. with no prior literacy
Reasons for limited literacy • There are 115 million children in the world who do not attend primary school. • In Africa, only 59% attend school at all, and only 1 in 3 will complete primary school. Why? - Their families need them to work – fetching water, farming, or even working in bonded labor to pay off a debt. - 29% of the world’s children ages 5-14 are engaged in child labor.
Reasons for limited literacy A Long Walk to Water by Linda Sue Park
Reasons for limited literacy Schools in refugee camps often have limited resources. In some camps children must pay to attend the schools.
Reasons for limited literacy There are many reasons for limited literacy: • The US spends about $1780 per capita on primary and secondary education. • Uganda spends just about $5.00 per capita Today: 1 in 6 adults in the world is illiterate 2/3 of the illiterate are women
Important to remember “Our people did not carry their stories in heavy books, but in our songs.” – Home of the Brave • Cultures without literacy are rich in relationships – if you need to know how to do something, you don’t Google it, you ask a friend. • Parents from these cultures who come here, highly value education!
Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching 2nd Language Speakers to Read English • Not all languages are alphabetic; neither do they share the same syntactic characteristics. • Reading models include the same set of three processing dimensions: • visual • phonological • syntactic *Phonology: the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language. *Syntax - the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural language. • What is not considered in reading models is the second language reader’s prior knowledge of the sound-letter correspondences in the native language experiences with them.
Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching 2nd Language Speakers to Read English 4. ELLs come from around the globe & bring different sets of language experiences with them. 5. Teachers need to understand the similarities and differences between students’ languages and writing systems and English in order to be able to teach English language learners.
Chinese Numbers 1. Write the number of toes you have. 2. Write the answer to 4 + 4 = _____ 3. Write the number of days in a week. 4. Write your phone number.
What is Phonemic Awareness? “Knowing the sounds of a language is a prerequisite to being able to start to match it with print.” – Ramirez 2000 “ Phonemic awareness if the ability to notice, think, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words.” – Adler 2001
What is Phonemic Awareness? This means that individuals are aware of how the individual sounds in words work. They can break words into their component sounds, identify onsets and rhymes, and make new words by deleting or replacing sounds. Words are made of speech sounds called phonemes. Phonemes are the small, discrete spoken sounds of a language that help to distinguish one word for another. For example, change the first phoneme in the word bat to /h/. Changing the /b/ to /h/ changes the word from bat to hat and also changes the meaning of the word.
Phonics Is… …the predictable relationship between the sounds (phonemes) of spoken language and the letters and spellings (graphemes) that represent those sounds in written language (Antunez, 2002).
Phonics Instruction Is… …a way of teaching reading. It focuses on teaching children to understand the relationships between the sounds of the spoken words they hear and the letters of written words they see in print so they can use these relationships to read and write words (Adler, 2001; Heilman, 1968)
Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching Phonics • Phonics programs for native English speakers generally begin with consonants, because they tend to have a close one-to-one correspondence with one letter to one sound. • Phonics instruction that is systematic and explicit contributes to a student’s growth in reading.
Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching Phonics • For ELLs, instruction in phonemic awareness that includes letter-sound associates, or phonics, is more likely to be productive then teaching speech sounds alone (Adams, Foorman, Lunderg, & Beeler, 1998; Oudeans, 2004, cited in August & Shanahan, 2006).
Factors to Keep in Mind When Teaching Phonics • Phonics instruction should begin with the most frequently occurring letter-sound relationships in English so that children can read words as soon as possible. (Texas Education Agency, n.d.) • All students can best benefit from phonics instruction that is taught in meaningful contexts (Peregoy & Boyles, 2001; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998).
What is Required for Skilled Reading? • Skilled reading clearly requires skill in both decoding and comprehension… • A student who cannot decode cannot read; a student who cannot comprehend cannot read either. • Literacy – reading ability – can be found only in the presence of both decoding and comprehension. Both skills are necessary; neither is sufficient.
Some English language learners may • Speak languages that do not have the visual, phonological, or syntactic matches of spoken and written English (Bernhardt, 2003) • Be literate in their native language but know very little oral English (Bernhardt, 2003) • not be literate in their native language, so English is the language in which they develop literacy (Bernhardt, 2003)
Some English language learners may • Need to develop a phonological concept for English words (Bernhardt, 2003) • Develop early reading skills in many of the same ways as native English speakers (Ramirez, 2000) • Be able to use what they now about the phonological features of their native language to develop phonemic awareness in English (Bernhardt, 2003)
Some English language learners may • Need to learn the alphabetic writing system of English because the writing system of their native language is different from what of English (Durgunoglu, Nagy, & Hancin-Bhatt, 1991)) • Benefit from instruction in phonemic awareness and phonics that teaches English speech sounds alone and letter-sound associations (Adams, Foorman, Lundberg, & Beeler, 1998; Oudeans, 2004, cited in August & Shanahan, 2006)
Older Learners need: • Language Experience Approach • Picture Books with mature themes/Nonfiction texts
Learn as much as you can about a student’s first language • Spanish has 24 distinct sounds - Words usually end in vowels - Vowels very consistent in sound • English as 44 distinct sounds (System 44) • Swahili – every word ends in a vowel • Arabic – read from right to left • Is it an Asian pictorial language? plural? • Are there male and female pronouns in their first language?
Assessment It is important to assess Els at the beginning of each semester to know where they are starting and to measure their growth. • The DRA is an assessment used for beginning readers. It can be useful for EL to determine what level of reading a student has in English. Next Week we will look at this more
Small Groups are a must • Begin each semester with a reading assessment to determine reading level • Adjust classroom routine to accommodate small group instruction to differentiate • Begin with illustrated repetitive text
Small Group Reading Instruction Before Reading • Teach key vocabulary • Preview & Predict During Reading • Model Reading / model decoding strategies • Focus on the first sound in words After Reading• Review and Retell story • Shared writing
Break • Thank you for bringing snacks today! • Following Break – Tucker Signs
Setting the context for literacy • You may be preparing to teach older students, how could a chapter that begins by discussing literacy in a Kindergarten class be relevant to you? **Stand up, move around and find someone you have not talked with yet. Find out what level your partner teaches or is preparing to teach, discuss the question and then you will share your partner’s thoughts with the class.
What does the research say? • Large body of research on literacy development in first language • Far less research on literacy development for second language literacy development - even less for students with no literacy in their first language - which is much of the challenge with the African refugee population K-12!
What does the research say? • The research we do have shows that the English reading and writing development processes are essentially similar for both English learners and native English speakers (Edelsky, 1981a, 1981b; Goodman & Goodman, 1978; Hudelson, 1984; Urzua, 1987). • My concern: Refugee Act passed in 1980 - that is when the USA began getting refugees from African nations with no prior literacy and languages with a completely different structure from Romantic languages. There is a need for more research!
What does the research say? • For all learners, literacy development is a complex process that takes place over a lengthy period of time. • Academic fluency takes 5 to 7 years • Longer if there is no literacy in student’s first language
What does the research say? • There are two important differences in literacy development for ELLs: • A student’s English Language proficiency • A student’s ability to read and write in their primary language (Hudelson, 1987) Research shows English learners can benefit from English literacy instruction well before they have developed full control of the language orally!
What does the research say? • Oral and written English can develop more or less simultaneously, provided that instruction is carefully organized to be meaningful and relevant. • Stephen Krashen calls this comprehensible input. When students are focused on understanding the meaning of a message…they are naturally acquiring language
What does the research say? • If English learners are literate in their primary language, they may bring knowledge, skills, and attitudes about reading and writing that transfer to the task of English reading. • Research and theory consistently support the benefits of teaching children to read and write in their primary language first.
What does the research say? • Research consistently shows that • English language proficiency and • Primary language literacy contribute to the ease with which English learners develop English reading and writing skills. …..now think of the challenges of students who have no generational literacy…no one they know or their parents know have ever been able to read or write in their language
Contrasting the Emergent Literacy & Reading Readiness Perspectives Note: The authors of our text believe the emergent literacy perspective offers the most effective teaching practices for ELLs. We will be looking at how children learn to read at a young age and then apply this knowledge to ELL students who come to us at all ages with no prior literacy in their first language. How will you teach an eight grade students who does not yet know to read or is just now reading at a first grade reading in English?
Reading Readiness Perspective • Popular in much of the world in the 20th century • Believe children are not developmentally ready to read until they reach a mental age of 6.6 years so reading not taught until 1st grade • Writing postponed until 1st grade and focused on proper letter formation rather than communicating • Kindergarten for socialization, oral language development, not literacy
Research Conclusions • For native English speakers and English learners many reading readiness subskill prerequisites turned out to be unnecessary hindrances to literacy development. • Example: students who were already reading were told they could not advance to 1st grade because they could not color inside the lines. • The assumption was that a student was not ready to learn to read until they could color inside the lines.
Emergent Literacy Perspective • The Emergent Literacy Perspective was pioneered by Marie Clay (1975) in New Zealand, also known as the founder of Reading Recovery and Emilio Ferrerio and AnaTeberosky in Latin America (1982). • According to this perspective children begin to develop written language knowledge as soon as they are first exposed to reading and writing.