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The SIOP Model for Elementary Classrooms with English Learners

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  1. The SIOP Model for Elementary Classrooms with English Learners Prepared for the SFSD by Marcia Gaudet and Suzanne Maxwell Content from Making Content Comprehensible for Elementary English Learners THE SIOP MODEL, Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2010

  2. Content Learning Goals: • I can identify the 8 components of the SIOP model. • I can reflect on student needs and how the SIOP model meets those needs. Language Learning Goals: • I can listen to and read a story about two English Learners (ELs). • I can discuss and list 3 challenges for ELs in a classroom. • I can list 3 SIOP features that help students overcome these challenges.

  3. Think of a time when you were learning a new language. In one word, describe your experience. Write that word on a sticky note. Sticky Note A

  4. Who are ELL students in South Dakota? • Refugee students - placed through the UN & Secondary refugee students (no financial help) • Students who are immigrating on other types of visas: Ethiopia - Diversity visa, Mexico, etc. • Students born in the USA whose home language is other than English • International students who have been adopted! • Students who are children of visiting professionals and higher ed students (studying at Augustana, etc.) Who are ELLs?

  5. Where do ELLs come from? • In the SFSD there are over 61 languages from 67 countries • At the Immersion Center we are now seeing students from: • Iraq, Yemen (Arabic) • Somalia,Kenya,Tanzania, Congo,Ethiopia, Burundi, Liberia, Ivory Coast • Burma, Thailand, Nepal • Mexico, Guatemala

  6. 1. Acculturation • Explicitly teach US study skills/behavior • 2. Language Acquisition • Teach content while teaching literacy • Context embedded/Adaptations for Lang. • 3. Classroom Instruction that Works • SIOP: Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol What are Three Foundational Issues in ELL?

  7. This was a lawsuit on behalf of Chinese students in San Francisco public schools. • The Supreme Court ruled that identical education does not constitute equal education under the Civil Rights Act. • “There is no equality of treatment merely by providing students with the same facilities, textbooks, teachers, and curriculum; for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education.” Federal Legislation: Lau vs. Nichols (1974)

  8. Within two weeks of Lau vs. Nichols, Congress passed the Equal Opportunity Act. • “No state shall deny equal educational opportunity to an individual on account of his or her race, color, sex, national origin or by failure of an educational agency to take appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by its students in its instructional programs.” Federal Legislation: Equal Educational Opportunity Act (1974)

  9. We need to ensure that we are teaching our ELs GRADE LEVEL CONTENT while simultaneously increasing their ACADEMIC English proficiency! SIOP is way to achieve this! Therefore… Chapter 1, #2

  10. For English learners, BICS is really just the tip of the iceberg! CALP is what takes many years to develop and what is needed to obtain academic success!

  11. BICS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency • Conversational English used both inside and outside the classroom. • “Playground” English • 1-3 years to fully develop • Academic English required to be successful in grade level content classes. • Technical terms specific to content areas • Develops slowly; 4 -7 years depending on the individual and sociocultural factors Many teachers say…..”I don’t understand why my ELs aren’t doing well in my class. They can speak English just fine!”

  12. BICS…Social Language Listening: Follows general classroom directions Speaking: Converses easily about social situations with peers and teachers. May speak English without an accent. Reading: May decode reading material with ease, but may not comprehend what is read. Writing: Can fill out school forms. Can find and copy the answers to questions in textbooks. CALP…Academic English Listening: Can follow specific directions for academic tasks. Speaking: Expresses reasons for opinions. Asks for clarification during academic tasks. Reading: Reads academic materials with good comprehension. Writing: Can write an essay supporting a point of view. Examples of BICS & CALP Turn and Talk

  13. Con Cummin’s Model of Academic Language Cummin’s Model of Academic Language Cognitively Undemanding (Easy) Cognitively Undemanding • A. • Art, music, physical education • Following simple directions • Face-to-face discussions • C. • Phone conversations • Notes on refrigerator • Written directions Context-Embedded (Many Clues) Context-Reduced (Few Clues) • B. • Demonstrations • Audio-visual assisted lesson • Science experiments • Social studies project • D. • Reading a textbook • Explaining new, abstract concepts • Lecturing with few illustrations • Math concepts and applications Cognitively Demanding A Cognitively Demanding (Difficult)

  14. Where do these activities fit within the quadrants? ___ Completing and end-of-the-chapter book test ___ Getting groceries using someone else’s list ___ Following daily procedures ___ Lessons using manipulatives ___ Greeting your teachers ___ Assembling a new desk with written instructions ___ Reading how to use a new product ___ Group work with specifically assigned partners/group members ___ Using only textbook materials ___ Providing rubrics or timelines for projects ___ Homework ___ Role-playing a character’s response with a classmate ___ Keyboarding ___ Teaching the standards without background D C A B A C C B D B D B A A D

  15. Chart taken from: Classroom Instruction that works with ELLs pg. 15

  16. Sociolinguistic Development Level 6 Abstract language more accessible Advanced Fluency May need help with college essays Level 5 Decontextualized, abstract vocab Advanced Fluency 5 – 7 years SD Exits ELs 4.8 Composite Level 4 2,000 receptive words 4.0 Read/Write Intermediate Fluency 3 - 5 years 3 - 5 years to attain Level 3 7,000 receptive words Speech Emergence: 1 - 3 years 2-3 years to attain Often quiet, don’t ask questions Level 2 1,000 receptive words Early Production: 6 months to 1 year Level 1 1-2 receptive words Pre-Production: 0-6 months Note: In America 6 year olds in English speaking homes have 10,000 to 24,000 words of English in 1st grade when learning to read.

  17. Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol • Lesson Preparation • Building Background • Comprehensible Input • Strategies • Interaction • Practice/Application • Lesson Delivery • Review & Assessment SIOP - 30 Features Grouped into 8 Components

  18. SFSD Serving 1800+ ELLs Level 4,5, & 6 ELL Regular Content & Classrooms Level 2 & 3 ELL Regular Classrooms & Content Level 1 ELL Immersion Centers Elem – Pull-out/Push-in MS,HS - Sheltered 270+ Level 1 Immersion Programs All other ELL levels are served in ELL centerbase schools • Elem: 10 ELL centerbase schools • Middle: 2 ELL centerbase schools • High School: 3 ELL centerbase schools How we serve ELLs in the SFSD

  19. Content Objectives • Language Objectives • Content Concepts Appropriate for Age and Educational Background • Supplementary Materials • Adaption of Content to All Levels of Student Proficiency • Meaningful Activities that Integrate Lesson Concepts with Language Practice Opportunities Feature 1 - Lesson Preparation

  20. Learning Objectives are Essential They guide both teaching and learning in a classroom. You need to have both content and language learning goals. They are the foundation of a lesson. They should be written in kid friendly language, posted and reviewed with students. Attainment of the objectives should be assessed and reviewed with the students at the end of the lesson. Content Learning Goals… • describe what the students will be learning • come from grade level content standards Language Learning Goals… • describe how the students will demonstrate their knowledge • build students’ academic language proficiency in each subject area

  21. Examples of Content and Language Objectives Language Learning Goals… (how they will demonstrate their knowledge through reading, writing, listening and speaking) • Students will be able to present an oral report about one landform and its influence on a country’s history. • Students will be able to write a paragraph to persuade other colonists to help take part in the Boston Tea Party. • Students will be able to orally justify their answer using this sentence starter… The author’s purpose for writing this text was to _______ the reader. I know this because the text is ______. Content Learning Goals: (what they will learn) • Students will be able to identify specific landforms on a map of South America. • Students will be able to identify reasons for why the Boston Tea Party happened. • Students will be able to identify an author’s purpose for writing a text.

  22. Concepts are Linked to Students’ Background Experiences • Links Explicitly Made Between Past Learning and New Concepts • Key Vocabulary Emphasized Feature 2 – Building Background

  23. How is building background knowledge different from activating background knowledge? TURN AND TALK using this sentence frame... Building background knowledge is different from activating background knowledge because….. • All learners have background knowledge which has been • acquired through school and life experiences. • Connecting current learning to previous learning is • activating prior knowledge. • However, some ELs have little, to no prior knowledge about a • topic. Therefore brainstorming about it or doing a KWL chart • may not be helpful. • It is critical that teachers use techniques to build their knowledge of a topic and fill in the gaps. Building Background Knowledge Turn and talk Beach Ball Share Out

  24. 1. Pre-Teach Vocabulary Words! • Teachers should select vocabulary terms that are CRITICAL for understanding a text or concept. • These words should be presented using both linguistic and nonlinguistic representations. • Students should have multiple meaningful interactions with the words. Interventions for When Students Lack Background Knowledge Needed for Academic Success

  25. 2. Provide meaningful and relevant experiences for students. The quality of an experience enhances the likelihood of it being stored in the permanent memory. • Bring in realia or use supplemental materials (Google images) • Show a movie or video clip prior to teaching a lesson (Learn360 videos) • Take field trip • Use picture books to introduce students to new information Interventions Continued……

  26. 3. Introduce a conceptual framework which will allow students to build their background knowledge. • Use graphic organizers to help students understand key ideas • Preview the text with students, focusing on key ideas • Link present learning to past learning Interventions Continued……

  27. Speech Appropriate for Students’ Proficiency Levels • Clear Explanation of Academic Task • A Variety of Techniques Used to Make Content Concepts Clear Feature 3 – Comprehensible Input

  28. Words alone cannot convey meaning to ELLs. • Nonlinguistic representation help ELLs. • Nonlinguistic representations include real objects, pictures, pictographs, diagrams, physical models, video clips, recorded sounds, gestures, and movement. • Seeing is remembering. Comprehensible Input:Nonlinguistic Representation

  29. Demale anajaalia ya wazima kwamba alikuwa yai mbolea na wa kiume. • Hatches ya yai katika vidogo larba. • Ya larva anakula na kukua kiasi kubwa. The larva inaona yenyewe na aina twig na nje ngumu shell. • A kikamilifu-grown wazima kipepeo anaibuka kutoka chrysalis. • Wazima kuishi kwa muda mfupi tu. Wao hawawezi kula; wao kunywa tu kupitia stra yao kama cirkel proboscis. Watakuwa kuruka, mate, na kuzaliana. Maishayakipepeo

  30. Kipepeo Lifecycle Metamorphosis ya Butterfly ya Rouanez wote yai yai Yai hatches katika larva vidogo (kiwavi) kiwavi ya kula na kukua kiasi kubwa Watu wazima wa kike aliandika kwamba alikuwa yai fertilzed na wa kiume kiwavi ya kujishikiza jani la na aina ngumu nje shell Kijani Pupa A butterfly kikamilifu mzima anaibuka kutoka chrystalis ya Ndani ya Chrysalis mabadiliko ya kiwavi katika kipepeo Watu wazima kuishi kwa muda mfupi tu

  31. Ample Opportunities Provided for Students to Use Learning Strategies • Scaffolding Techniques Consistently Used, Assisting and Supporting Student Understanding • A Variety of Questions or Tasks That Promote High-Order Thinking Skills Feature 4 – Strategies

  32. Cognitive Strategies: • Rereading • Highlighting • Reading Aloud • Taking Notes • Talking to Someone • Finding Key Vocabulary • Mapping Information • Metacognitive Strategies: • Predicting/Inferring • Self-Questioning • Monitoring/Clarifying • Evaluating • Summarizing • Synthesizing • Visualizing Activities that build these strategies: SQP2RS: Survey, Question, Predict, Read, Respond, Summarize A framework used for teaching content with expository text Graphic Organizers Strategies

  33. Frequent Opportunities for Interaction • Grouping Configurations • Sufficient Wait Time • Clarify Concepts in L1 Feature 5 – Interaction

  34. Inside/Outside Circle • Think-Pair-Share • Gallery Walk • Beach Ball Share • Mulling to Music • Thumbs Up/Thumbs Down • Carousel Brainstorming • Fist of Five • Give One, Get One Ways To Get Students Interacting:

  35. A study done by Stahl & Clark found that students who knew that they WEREN’T GOING TO BE CALLED ON during vocabulary instruction RECALLED FEWER WORDS than students who knew that they might be called on in class.

  36. Hands-On Materials and/or Manipulatives Provided for Students to Practice Using New Content Knowledge • Activities Provided for Students to Apply Content and Language Knowledge • Activities Integrate All Language Skills Feature 6 – Practice/Application

  37. I Have, Who Has • Concept Vocabulary Puzzles • Memory Game • Jeopardy • Flyswatter I Have, Who Has Example: I have cullet. Who has a word that means to throw something through the window? Fun Ways For Students To Practice What They Have Learned:

  38. Content Objectives are Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery • Language Objectives are Clearly Supported by Lesson Delivery • Students are Engaged 90% – 100% of the Time • Pacing of the Lesson Should be Appropriate for Students’ Ability Level. Feature 7 – Lesson Delivery

  39. Comprehensive Review of Key Vocabulary • Comprehensive Review of Key Content Concepts • Regular Feedback Provided to Student on Their Output • Assessment of Student Comprehension and Learning of All Lesson Objectives Throughout the Lesson. Feature 8 – Review & Assessment

  40. “Hola Prima,” called Graciela to her cousin, Jocelyn, on the playground “Ayuda con mi tarea!” Graciela asked her cousin for help with a homework assignment. “Cúales el problema?” replied Jocelyn. Graciela went on to explain that she had to write a paper about recycling. She had to write an action plan, but she didn’t know what an action plan was. The two girls are cousins from Central America who entered fourth grade in Bray Elementary School together seven months earlier. They were placed in different classes in this suburban setting, but because the fourth grade science teachers all did the same projects, Jocelyn knew how to help her cousin. The Story of Graciela and Jocelyn

  41. She explained that they had already started to work on that project. They had looked through the trash can in the lunchroom and found many things that could be recycled. They are creating a bulletin board with vocabulary and pictures about recycling. They had watched two videos, one about neighborhood families recycling and one about a recycling plant. They were going to make paper the next day. “We have to make a poster with our partner telling why it is important to recycle,” Jocelyn told her cousin. “We made a list in class of reasons and I decided to try to stop pollution in the sea. Ms. Sylvan showed us two posters from last year’s class. Then she bookmarked some websites for me to look at. Some of them are in Spanish and you can listen to people talking about pollution and recycling. “What did you do in class?” Jocelyn’s Classroom

  42. Graciela explained that one day the teacher had talked to them for a long time about what recycling is and why it is important. “She told us to take notes when she talked, but it was hard. She talked too fast and she didn’t write anything on the board. Then we read a few pages in our science textbook and answered questions yesterday. Today she gave us this sheet and told us to start writing our ideas.” Graciela showed her cousin the assignment: Think of a recycling project. What needs to be improved in your school or town? Write an action plan proposing the school board or the town council take steps to alleviate the problem or introduce a new program. Jocelyn shook her head slowly as she looked at the paper. “I know what we can do. Let’s go ask Ms. Sylvan. She just came out of the cafeteria.” Graciela’s Classroom

  43. Elbow Partner • Turn to your neighbor and tell them: 1. What helped Jocelyn to be successful with the recycling project? 2. What made it hard for Graciela to be successful with the recycling project?

  44. + or – Beach Ball Sharing Tell what helped Jocelyn to be successful with the recycling project. Something that helped Jocelyn to be successful with the project was that…….. Directions: We are going to toss the ball around the room. When you catch the ball look to see which symbol is facing you, this will determine what information you share with the group. + Tell what made it hard for Graciela to be successful. Something that made it hard for Graciela to be successful with the project was that…….. -

  45. Musical Share - Mulling to Music When the music starts, stand up and begin filing back and forth through the rows towards the top row. When you reach the top row, make your way down to the front row and begin again. When the music stops, turn and find the person closest to you. Share your answers to these two questions: Share 3 challenges that ELs face in the classroom? Share 3 SIOP features that could help the student overcome those challenges? Continue walking when the music begins again.

  46. What Helps Me Learn (Hear from the students themselves)

  47. Content Learning Goals: • I can identify the 8 components of the SIOP model. • I can reflect on student needs and how the SIOP model meets those needs. Language Learning Goals: • I can listen to and read a story about two English Learners (ELs). • I can discuss and list 3 challenges for ELs in a classroom. • I can list 3 SIOP features that help students overcome these challenges.

  48. Questions or Comments