SUPPORTING LONG-TERM ENGLISH LEARNERS Margarita Calderón, Ph.D. Professor Emerita, Johns Hopkins University Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
LEARNING OUTCOMES • Overview of on-going research on language, literacy and content. • Experience examples of instructional strategies that ensure academic language, close reading, and writing specific to the Common Core State Standards. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Results From the Five-year Studies: IES comparison study of K-4th dual language (DL), transitional bilingual (TB), and sheltered English instruction/structured English immersion (SEI). Carnegie Corporation of New York study in 6th-12th general education teachers, ESL, SEI, SIFE, and bilingual teachers. New study in NYC on RTI and LT-ELs. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Diversity of ELs • LT-ELs -- Long-Term ELLs (60-85%) • Struggling Readers/Reluctant Readers • R-ELs -- Reclassified ELLs • M-ELs -- Migrant ELLs • SIFE -- Students with Interrupted Formal Education • SE-ELs -- Special Education ELLs • HSN -- Highly Schooled Newcomers Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Features of Success for ELs: Whole School Commitment • Integrated language, literacy and content • Cooperative learning/interaction • Differentiated Tutoring (RTI) • Whole-school structures & effective leadership • Professional development for everyone • Teacher support: Coaching & TLCs • Parent/family support teams • Benchmark assessments and monitoring of implementation Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
CHANGES IN ELA/LITERACY • The CCSS call for changes in the way all K-12 teachers have been teaching: • Academic vocabulary (e.g., tier 1, 2, 3 words). • Language (e.g., rich discourse, discussions, questions, answers). • Reading (e.g., text complexity, more informational than literary). • Writing from sources (e.g., texts they are reading). • Building knowledge in the disciplines by teaching reading, vocabulary and writing in science, social studies, and language arts. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
6 CHANGES IN ELA/LITERACY • PK-5 – balancing informational & literary texts (students access the world through science, social studies, the arts and literature) • 6-12 – building knowledge in the disciplines (content area teachers instruct on how to learn from what they read and teach academic vocabulary and discourse) • Staircase of complexity (close and careful reading to learn; teachers create more time for this reading, and scaffold in new ways) Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
6 CHANGES IN ELA/LITERACY • Text-based answers (rich and rigorous conversations on a common text) • Writing from sources (use evidence to inform or make an argument, respond to events, ideas, facts, rather than personal narratives) • Academic vocabulary (constantly build the vocabulary from complex texts across the content areas. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Why is Vocabulary Critical to Reading Comprehension? • Effective vocabulary instruction has to start early, in preschool, and continue throughout the school years (Nagy, 2005). • Teaching vocabulary helps develop phonological awareness (Nagy, 2005) and reading comprehension (Beck, Perfetti, & McKeown, 1982). • Vocabulary instruction needs to be long-term and comprehensive (Nagy, 2005) for ELs (Carlo, August, & Snow, 2005; Calderón et al., 2005). Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Why is Vocabulary Important? • Command of a large vocabulary frequently sets high-achieving students apart from less successful ones (Montgomery, 2000). • The average 6-year-old has a vocabulary of approximately 8000 words, and learns 3000-5000 more per year (Senechal & Cornell, 1993). • Vocabulary in kindergarten and first grade is a significant predictor of reading comprehension in the middle and secondary grades (Cunningham, 2005; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997) or reading difficulties (Chall & Dale, 1995; Denton et al. 2011). Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
THINK ABOUT IT • How many words are your LT-ELs learning per year? • How about the struggling learners? • How about the highly-schooled newcomers? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
VOCABULARY PREVALENT IN COMPLEX TEXTS • Some students will have smaller tier 1, 2. 3 vocabularies when they enter the classroom. Instruction must address this vocabulary gap early and aggressively. • Provide more instruction for students with weaker vocabularies rather than offering them fewer words. • Focus on tier 2 instruction to help students access grade level texts. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
ESL Depth of Vocabulary SHELTERED INSTRUCTION Reading & Writing in Content Domains BASED ON CURRENT RESEARCH, ELLs NEED A BALANCE OF Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
NOW: STUDENTS FALLING THROUGH THE GAPS WITHOUT QUALITY INSTRUCTION TIER 1 – WHEN GENERAL EDUCATION TEACHERS DO NOT PROVIDE QUALITY INSTRUCTION FOR ELs AND ALL STUDENTS THEY FALL THROUGH THE GAPS. 80 – 90% GAPS IN INSTRUCTION 10 - 15% Tier 2 – EL STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS GAPS IN INSTRUCTION 5 - 10% TIER 3 SPED DROP OUTS Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Why is Content Area Literacy Important for ELLs? Without reading instruction on content area literacy: • SURFACE COMPREHENSION: Literal comprehension; students read on their own and answer questions; questions are low-level. With reading instruction integrated into content areas: • DEEP COMPREHENSION: Critical comprehension; students learn new vocabulary continuously; associate new readings with prior knowledge; add new knowledge, discuss ideas, interpret facts and information, and apply critical thinking skills to text. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
SUMMARIZE: THE MESSAGES FROM WHAT HAS BEEN PRESENTED SO FAR. 2. DISCUSS: WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS SO FAR FOR YOUR CLASSROOM AND YOUR SCHOOL? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
With your colleague(s), read slides #18 to #21 and summarize. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
ORACY/RICH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT • Oracy = the ability to express oneself fluently and grammatically in speech. • Oral skills are developed as they occur regularly throughout the day – during pre-teaching of vocabulary, during reading, after reading in cooperative learning activities, small group and whole group discussions, and before, during and after writing.
ORACY/RICH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Oracy development occurs when teachers • Provide ELs with multiple opportunities to interact with peers about a text or what they are writing (Eads & Wells, 1989; Slavin & Calderón, 2010; Fisher et al. 2012) • Carefully plan, model, provide a psychological safety net, and scaffold in a way that makes ELs feel comfortable expressing their “English in progress”(Calderón 2011) • Create a context of the classroom that encourages voicing of understandings and misunderstandings, thereby, enriching students’ cognitive and linguistic repertoires (Fisher et al. 2012)
As Biber (1988) and other linguists have pointed out, authors of narrative and informational texts have different goals and, as a result, use words in very different ways. • Marzano (2004) found two features associated with science and social studies vocabulary: complex phrases and polysemous words.
The word workhas 53 common meanings according to Dictionary.com. • In the science program, one meaning only—and in this case a very precise one—is developed, which is work as “using force in order to move an object a certain distance”(Cooney et al., 2006, p. EM9; Hiebert & Cervetti, 2011).
Semantic Awareness Semantic Awareness is a cognitive, metacognitive, affective, and linguistic stance toward words. It is a mindset that word consciousness involves motivating and showing students how important it is to be learning words. Students who are word conscious are aware of the power of words they read, hear, write and speak. Semantic awareness helps students become more skillful and precise in word usage at many levels of complexity and sophistication. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Academic Language: • For formal discourse between teacher-student and student-student interaction around standards/goals. • For text comprehension. • For words you want to see in their formal writing. • For success in tests. • For academic and economic status. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
For Meeting the Common Core Standards Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Key: Teach Vocabulary Before, During & After Students Read • Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading comprehension. • Reading comprehension correlates with procedural and content knowledge. • Content knowledge correlates with academic success. • Comprehension depends on knowing between 90% and 95% of the words in text. • Knowing words means explicit instruction not just exposure. Students need 12 production opportunities to own a word. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
SELECTING WORDS TO TEACH ELS AND STRUGGLING READERS Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Multiple Applications of Words Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
ELL Oracy Takes Place During Content Instructional Sequences: What is the amount of time for student talk vs. teacher talk? • Pre-teaching of vocabulary • Teacher read alouds • Student peer reading • Peer summaries • Depth of word studies/grammar • Class discussions • Cooperative learning activities • Formulating questions and Numbered Heads • Round Table Reviews • Pre-writing & drafting • Revising/editing • Sharing
A framework for selecting words: Tier 1, 2, and 3 word categories • Words that support major ideas in a text, and are the most useful, critical, to the major concepts. • Content area texts have key terms that are Tier 3, but not Tier 2 or Tier 1 that are new to ELs. • Which words do you want to hear in their discussions and see in their academic writing? • Which words are most useful for ELs to learn? • What are the syntax and grammatical features you want ELs to learn from this text?
The core vocabulary consists of Tier 3 words such as mysteries, property, and interior. These words are highly versatile--many of them are polysemous and can also function as different parts of speech. Approximately 4,000 root words in this core group form approximately 5,600 unique words (Zeno, Ivens, Millard, & Duvvuri, 1995). When simple endings are added to these words (inflected endings, possessives, plurals, ly, y, er, est), their numbers approach 9,000 words (Hiebert & Cervetti, 2011).
TIER 3 – CONTENT SPECIFIC Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Tier 2—Subcategories Polysemous words(homonyms or homographs) across academic content areas: • fall • check • court • hand • long • pin • rest • roll • sense
TIER 2 – PHRASAL CLUSTERS AND IDIOMS Run off Run away Break a leg Once in a while Complete sentence • Long noun phrases • Relatively easier • Stored Energy • Stimulus package Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Spanish to English: ¡Fácil! Fácil • Facile • Facilitate • Facilitator • Facilitation Edificio • Edifice • Edify • Edification
TIER 2 – SOPHISTICATED AND WORDS FOR SPECIFICITY TIER 1 – TALK, SAY TIER 2 -- WHISPER CONVERSATION [conversación] ARGUE CONVERSE [conversar] SPECIFY [especificar] COMMENT [comentar] ANNOUNCE [anunciar] MENTION [mencionar] REQUEST COMMUNICATE [comunicar] REVEAL [revelar] DIALOGUE [diálogo] REMARK VERBALIZE [verbalizar] DECLARE [declarar] PRONUNCE [pronunciar] DESCRIBE [describir] DEBATE [debate] DISCUSS [discutir] VOCALIZE [vocalizar] PROCLAIM [proclamar] ARTICULATE [articular] SHOUT QUESTION [cuestionar] SCREAM PONTIFICATE [pontificar] Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
IDIOMS: talk • Small talk • Sweet talk • Talk shop • Talk big • Talk sense • Talk down • Talk back • Talk over • Speak up • Pep talk • Talk your ear off • Talk in circles • Talk in riddles • Talk a mile a minute • Dance around a topic • Talking to a brick wall • Talk of the town • Spit it out • Talking point • Talk your way out of it
COMPOUND WORDS: check • Bad check • Bed check • Check-in • Check-out • Check off • Check up on • Cross-check • Double check • Spellcheck • Checkbook • Paycheck • Checkstub • Blank check • Rubber check • Rain check • Spot check • Checklist • Checkmate
TIER 2 - SENTENCE STARTERS Summarizing. Students create a new oral text that stands for an existing text. The summary contains the important information or big ideas. + This story tells about a . . . + This section is about the . . . + One important fact here is that . . . Determining important information. Students tell the most important idea in a section of text, distinguishing it from details that tell more about it. + The main idea is . . . + The key details that support that are . . . + The purpose of this text is to . . . Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
TIER 2 - QUESTION STARTERS • Can you help me _____? • I don't understand _____. • Where is/are _____? • How do I _____? • May I ask a question? • How much time do we have for _____? • Where do I _____? • Would you please repeat that? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Some Examples of Transition Words & Connectors for: Cause & Effect -- because, due to, as a result, since, for this reason, therefore, in order to, so that, thus… Contrast-- or, but, although, however, in contrast, nevertheless, on the other hand, while … Addition or comparison -- and, also, as well as, in addition, likewise, moreover, by the way … Giving examples -- for example, for instance, in particular, such as … TIER 2 – WORDS THAT NEST CONTENT WORDS AND CONCEPTS Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Differences of Vocabularies In Informational Text • Knowing these words is more crucial • More complex words • More interrelated thematically • More phrasal clusters • They have to be pre-taught, demonstrated, illustrated, discussed, and written In Narrative Text • Can get the gist of the action or dilemma without knowing all words • Content selections in ELA textbooks do not emphasize core content vocabulary
When explaining / presenting a lesson, pay attention to homophones such as: sum some cell sell weather whether blew blue whole hole TIER 2 -- HOMOPHONES Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Simple words for English speakers, but might create difficulty for ELLs due to: Spelling Pronunciation Background knowledge Unfamiliar word, not previously taught False cognate TIER 1 FOR ELS Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
The 25 most frequent words (e.g.,the, of, to, a) alone account for 33% of all the words in typical texts. These most frequently used words are functions words, the glue that holds our thoughts together (prepositions, pronouns, question words).
REVIEW AND GET READY FOR A TEST: What are the differences between Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3? Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
vary, underlying, albeit, solely, successive, denote, crucial, oddly, analogous, compiled, oddly, whereby, notwithstanding, forthcoming, coincide, widespread, implicit… These Await Your Students in 6th & 7th Grade Tests! Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Summary of Vocabulary Tiers 1, 2, 3 For ELLs TIER 1 -- Basic words ELLs need to communicate, read, and write. Those that should be taught. TIER 2 --Information processing words that nest Tier 3 words in long sentences, polysemous words, transition words, connectors; more sophisticated words for rich discussions and specificity in descriptions. TIER 3 --Subject-specific words that label content discipline concepts, subjects, and topics. Infrequently used academic words. Margarita Calderón & Associates, Inc.
Academic language is vital for academic success. • Informational text contains more new words in specialized content areas. • Teachers across the subject areas can explicitly teach the most useful words. • Develop word-learning strategies and application in daily use. • Daily learning and use of words is the most important gift for our students.
Your Turn! Select 3 words for each tier - (Tier 1, 2, 3) from the text slide.
Criteria for Selecting Words to Teach • It is critically important to the discipline. • It is critically important to this unit. • It is important to the understanding of the concept. • It is not critical but useful for ELLs. • It is not useful at this time.