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World War I. Beginning of the War in Europe. 1914 Germany and Austria-Hungary= Central Powers Britain, France and Russia= Allied Powers. Self- Determinism. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand. Nationalism. The Two Sides. Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Allied Powers France

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beginning of the war in europe
Beginning of the War in Europe
  • 1914
  • Germany and Austria-Hungary= Central Powers
  • Britain, France and Russia= Allied Powers

Self-

Determinism

Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

Nationalism

the two sides
The Two Sides
  • Central Powers
    • Germany
    • Austria-Hungary
  • Allied Powers
    • France
    • Britain
    • Russia
the united states
The United States
  • Remained NEUTRAL for 3 years
  • President Wilson- “We must be impartial in thought as well as in action”
  • Most Americans did take sides
    • German and Irish Americans sided with Germans
    • Many others sided with the British, including Wilson’s cabinet members
economic impact
Economic Impact
  • Boom-
    • Bankers lending $$ to Allies
  • Forced trade exclusively with Allies
    • British blockade ended trade with Germany
    • British controlled shipping lanes across the Atlantic
german response
German Response

Blockade of German supply ships led to..

  • Germany using U-boats
  • Germany announced they would sink ships, without warning, found in the water near Britain
    • Included merchant ships and other civilian ships
    • Unable to determine neutral from non-neutral
wilson
Wilson
  • America will continue to be neutral
  • America will continue to trade with Britain
  • Germany will be held accountable for any attacks on American citizens
lusitania
Lusitania
  • British passenger ship sunk near Ireland by a German U-boat
  • May 7, 1915
  • 1,200 died - 128 Americans
  • Americans were divided over the issue of war with Germany
  • Germany continued attacking ships
sussex
Sussex
  • French passenger ship attacked in March 1916
  • Wilson demanded Germany provide warning before attacking merchant and passenger ships or the US would end diplomatic relations
  • Germany agreed providing the US agreed to their pledge amendment
sussex pledge add on
Sussex pledge- add on
  • The US would be responsible for persuading the Allies to modify their blockade
  • Wilson agreed to the pledge but acknowledged the “add-on” was impossible
election of 1916
Election of 1916
  • T. Roosevelt refused to accept the nomination for the Bull Moose Party- to avoid splitting the votes again
  • Republican Party = Charles Hughes
  • Democratic Party = Woodrow Wilson
  • Wilson wins by a small margin
slide14

January 22, 1917

  • Germany calls for “unrestricted submarine warfare in the war zone”
  • US breaks diplomatic ties with Germany
  • Wilson requests the authority to arm American merchant ships
zimmerman note
Zimmerman note
  • German, Arthur Zimmerman sent a letter to Mexico proposing a German-Mexican alliance
  • Zimmerman offered Mexico American land in exchange for their help
  • The letter was intercepted and published in March 1917
declaration of war
Declaration of War
  • “overt” attacks on American vessels
  • Wilson asked Congress to declare on April 2, 1917
  • “to make the world safe for democracy”
  • Reasons:
    • Attacks on civilians
    • Germany’s brutality
    • Zimmerman note
wilson s 14 points
Wilson’s 14 Points
  • Moral leader of the Allies
  • 14 Points address to Congress
  • Outlined goals
  • Read pgs. 258-262 (only “Wilson’s Points”) and take notes on the various points
selling the war
Selling the War
  • George Creel
  • Committee on Public Information (CPI)
  • Use various forms of propaganda to sell the war to Americans
    • “four minute men”
    • Posters, pamphlets and brochures
    • Music (“Over There”)
    • Movies – anti-German
enforced loyalty
Enforced Loyalty
  • Anti-German sentiment in the US- feared they were German spies
  • Espionage Act-1917 & Sedition Act- 1918
    • Prohibited anyone from making “disloyal” or “abusive” remarks about the US govt. Allowed for the imprisonment of up to 20 yrs for persons who either tried to incite rebellion in the armed forces or obstruct the operation of the draft.
    • Led to the prosecution of 2,000+ people including Socialist Eugene Debs and IWW leader Bill Haywood
schenck v united states
Schenck v. United States
  • Read the information about the case and answer questions 1-5 on a separate sheet of paper.
  • You may complete this assignment outdoors 
schenck v united states1
Schenck v. United States
  • upheld constitutionality of infringing on 1st Amendment rights in times of “clear and present danger”
war industries board
War Industries Board
  • Bernard Baruch
  • Federal government takes a “central role in economic planning” during wartime
  • Industry (factories) changed over to war preparations
  • Issued production quotas and set prices
  • Took over the RR
  • Required nation to observe daylight savings to save fuel (extend daylight hrs)
national war labor board
National War Labor Board
  • Worked to prevent strikes during the war
  • Unemployed men were drafted into the war
  • Concessions were granted for laborers to include: shorter workdays and higher wages
african americans
African Americans
  • Migrations to northern cities to take industrial jobs
  • Took jobs as strikebreakers
  • Appearance in cities led to race riots
    • St. Louis Race Riot- 1917
    • Chicago Race Riot- 1919
women
Women
  • Joined workforce while men fought abroad
  • Army nurses worked on the frontlines
  • Most women left their jobs post-war
  • Expansion of the right to vote to northern and eastern states led to the 19 Amendment in 1920
    • Women’s suffrage
food administration
Food Administration
  • Herbert C. Hoover
  • Voluntary compliance through propaganda
  • Wheatless Wednesdays and Meatless Tuesdays
  • “Victory gardens”
  • Restrictions on the use of foodstuffs for making alcohol
    • Many German brewers
    • Led to prohibition (18th Amendment, 1918)
fuel administration
Fuel Administration
  • Save fuel and help war cause
  • “Heatless Mondays”
  • “Lightless nights”
  • “gasless Sundays”
liberty bonds
Liberty Bonds
  • War bonds were sold to raise $$ for the war effort
  • Posters and billboards were used to advertise
  • Sold during the beginning of movies
raising an army
Raising an army
  • Draft Act required men ages 18-45 to register
  • You could not…
    • Hire a substitute
    • Pay to be exempt
  • Exemptions were given to men employed in specialized industries
  • Women and African Americans were accepted into segregated& specialized units
the war ends
The War Ends
  • Kaiser is forced to flee from Germany before Allies would negotiate with them
  • Major contributions of Americans:
    • Food
    • Munitions
    • Oil
    • Manpower
paris conference
Paris Conference
  • Big Four
    • United States- Woodrow Wilson
    • Italy- Vittorio Orlando
    • Britain- David Lloyd George
    • France- Georges Clemenceau
  • January 1919
  • Wilson wanted a League of Nations and to prevent “vengeful” actions
treaty of versailles 1919
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
  • Demands for war reparations
  • Germans expected peace and reconciliation, not vengeance
  • Wilson compromised away most of his 14 Points to save the League of Nations
battle over the league
Battle over the League
  • Wilson brought the treaty home to protest from Republicans and isolationists
  • Immigrant groups were upset about the terms set for their native countries
  • Senator Lodge delayed the vote on the treaty
  • Wilson led a Presidential tour across the nation to talk about the League of Nation
slide36

Campaign led to Wilson’s collapse and stroke

  • Some members of Congress wanted to reserve the right to declare war for themselves
  • They did not want to be pulled into to war by another member of the League
  • Deadlock = death of treaty

**Most Senators actually approved of treaty