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Chapter 7 IPX NetBIOS and AppleTalk
Why Study IPX? • IPX is the default protocol for Novell Netware operating systems. (not anymore). Why do we care? (1980’s protocol) • IPX varies significantly from TCP-IP • With more than 5 million networks and more than 50 million clients, Novell has the largest share of the NOS market. • NOT pure TCP/IP until version 5.0 • 4.0 supported TCP/IP but not native mode • 1998- NetWare 5.0
Continue….. • IPX stands for (Internetwork Packet Exchange) • It is similar to the XNS (Xerox Network Systems) • IPX is really a family of protocols • Fastest routable protocol suite available
IPX • IPX functions at layer 3 and 4 of the OSI model. • Controls assignments of IP addresses • Packets delivery • Makes routing decisions based on information provided by the routing protocols • IPX is connectionless like the UDP • Use sockets to communicate with upper layer protocols (similar to TCP-IP ports)
Introduction to Novell IPX • Novell IPX Suite of Protocols • IPX • SPX • RIP • SAP • NLSP • NCP
IPX/SPX • Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) • Protocol originally developed by Xerox • Modified and adopted by Novell in the 1980s for the NetWare network operating system IPX/SPX compared to the OSI Model
IPX/SPX Core Protocols • Sequence Packet Exchange (SPX) • Works in tandem with IPX • OSI Transport layer • Connection Oriented • Reliable • Whole • In sequence • Error free • Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) • OSI Network Layer • Provides routing and internetworking services • Logical Addressing • Similar to IP in TCP/IP suite
Client-Server Communication • NetWare is a pure client/server environment • NetWare servers provide the following services to clients: • File • Print • Message • Application • Database
SAP – Service Advertisement Protocol • Servers broadcast SAP advertisements • Other servers in the network build SAP tables • Routers • Accept SAP advertisements • Build SAP tables • Do not forward SAP advertisements • Clients broadcast SAP queries Get Nearest Server (GNS) • Nearest Server responds with address of server capable of satisfying the request • Routers can respond to requests as well
GNS Protocol 1 In responding to GNS requests, Router software can also distribute clients evenly among the available servers.
00007C80.0000.8609.33E9 1 2 3 4 IPX Suite • IPX • OSI Network layer • Connectionless • Unreliable • Communicates to upper layer through sockets • Address Assignment 1) Network portion. Commonly, the leading zeros are dropped. 2,3,4) Node portion. They are the MAC address of the machine Network address ffffffff reserved as broadcast address * A total of 80 bits (10 bytes) of data are required for IPX addresses.
IPX Addressing • NetWare uses two types of network addresses: • Internal network address • a destination address • associated with a particular server • used to send service requests that are destined to that server. • must be unique • usually assigned by NetWare during the installation process. • External network addresses • addresses that you assign to each physical cable segment • separated through the use of routers.
IPX Sockets Socket No. (Hex) Meanings 0001 XNS Routing Information Protocol 0002 Echo Protocol Packet 0003 Error Handler Packet 0020 - 003F Experimental 0001 - 0BB8 Registered with Xerox 0BB9 - Dynamically Assignable 0451 Netware File Service Packet (NCP) 0452 Netware Service Advertising Packet 0453 Netware Routing Information Protocol 0455 NetBIOS Packet 0456 Diagnostic Packet 4001 NetWare Watchdog Packet 4003 NetWare Shell Packet 4004 - 7FFF Dynamically Assigned Sockets 8000 - Socket Numbers assigned by Novell
IPX Suite • Routing • RIP – Distance Vector • NLSP - Link State • NCP • Provides clients with access to network resources • File access • Printing • Synchronization • security
Encapsulation Ethernet Token Ring FDDI Must be consistent IPX Encapsulation
NetBIOS and NetBEUI • Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) • Originally designed by IBM to provide Transport and Session layer services • Adopted by Microsoft as its foundation protocol • Microsoft added Application layer component called NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI)
NetBEUI • Fast and efficient protocol • Consumes few network resources • Provides excellent error correction • Requires little configuration • Uses Computer name as address (15 characters) • However • Little security • Not routable - no network layer • 254 nodes
NetBIOS and NetBEUI Compared to the OSI Model • Usually paired with other protocols
NetBIOS Addressing • Viewing a workstation’s NetBIOS name • Right-click the My Computre icon, then click Properties • Click the Identification tab
Server Message Block SMP • Used to exchange NetBIOS requests • Four types of messages • Session Control • Controls redirection to a shared resource • File • Used to access files on file servers • Printer • Used to send data to a printer server • Message • Workstation to workstation messaging
Common Internet File System - CIFS • Protocol that provides requesting file and print services on the Internet • Allows the sharing of resource between various Operating Systems • Linux • NetWare • Apple
Naming / Resolution • Uniform Naming Convention • \\servername\share-name • LMHOSTS file • IP address computer-name • Windows Internet Naming Service - WINS
AppleTalk • Protocol suite used to interconnect Macintosh computers • Originally designed to support peer-to-peer networking among Macintoshes • Can now be routed between network segments and integrated with NetWare- and Microsoft-based networks
AppleTalk • AppleTalk zone • Logical groups of computers defined on an AppleTalk network • Enables users to share file and print services AppleTalk protocol compared to OSI Model
AppleTalk Subprotocols • AppleShare • Resource sharing • AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) • File Access local and remote • AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP) • AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) • Responsible for reliable delivery • Name Binding Protocol (NBP) • Translates common names to Appletalk addresses • Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) • Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) • Maps zones to networks • Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) • Assigns AT address at start up
Addressing in AppleTalk • AppleTalk node ID • Unique 8-bit number identifying a computer on an AppleTalk network • 254 nodes • AppleTalk network number • Unique 16-bit number identifying the network to which an AppleTalk node is connected • Extended AppleTalk – segment assigned a range of network ids • Uses Zone concept to divide large networks (subnets) • Seed Routers • Network numbers programmed into it • Source of information for non-seed routers • Name Binding Protocol – provides for name resolution
Data Link Control - DLC • Protocol used to access IBM networks • Supported by some Hewlett Packard printers