TEFL-Group presentation - Speaking - Teaching Pronunciation & Speaking Erin 9610002M Gillian 9610004M - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TEFL-Group presentation - Speaking - Teaching Pronunciation & Speaking Erin 9610002M Gillian 9610004M

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  1. TEFL-Group presentation -Speaking- Teaching Pronunciation & Speaking Erin 9610002M Gillian 9610004M

  2. Teaching Pronunciation • 1) Foreword; EFL students’ problems • 2) Introduction • 3) The Segmental/Suprasegmental Debate • 4) Setting Realistic Goals • 5) A Description of the Sound System • of English • 6) A Communicative Framework for Teaching • Pronunciation • 7) Some Teaching Techniques • 8) An Integrated Whole-Body Approach Teaching • Pronunciation • 9) Media and Technology • 10) Assessment

  3. Foreword • *Three goals of teaching pronunciation (Goodwin) • Enable our learners to understand • and be understood. • 2. Build their confidence in entering communicative situations • 3. Enable them to monitor their speech based on input from the environment

  4. For ESL Students’ Problems 1. “Teacher treats me as inferior or academic disability because of muttering English.” 2. “It’s hard for foreigners to understand what I talked about because of my Chinese sense and mispronunciation the word.” => The major problem is “pronunciation”

  5. Introduction *Pronunciation is the language feature. *In the past – the articulation of consonants and vowels & the discrimination of minimal pairs. *In recent years – suprasegmental features (stress, intonation, and so on) *should be taught as communicative interaction along with other aspects

  6. The Segmental/Suprasegmental Debate * Segmental: individual sounds * Suprasegmental: stress, intonation… * It’s not sufficient to focus on only segmental or only suprasegmental * to know which features should be taught and which communicative situation should be used are important issue

  7. Setting Realistic Goals *Morley (1999) 1. Functional Intelligibility 2. Functional communicability 3. Increased Self-confidence 4. Speech Monitoring Abilities

  8. Setting Realistic Goals 1. Functional Intelligibility ★ Intelligibility: The spoken English is presented with accent, and is not confusing the listeners. -> use “accent addition” rather than “accent reduction” (not force learners to eliminate their L1 accent to learn new second language)

  9. Setting Realistic Goals 2. Functional communicability ★ Learners have a ability to use spoken English successfully in real communicative situations. ★ To elicit students’ needs and interests by giving survey => What the features do we need to choose and which pronunciation practices should be focus.

  10. Setting Realistic Goals 2. Functional communicability *Dalton and Seidlhofer 1. Prominence 2.Topic management 3.Information status 4.Turn-taking 5.Social meanings and roles 6.Degree of involvement

  11. Setting Realistic Goals 3. Increased Self-confidence ★speak and be understood ★Design the real situation: Control-> Free Production-> Provide feedback

  12. Setting Realistic Goals 4. Speech Monitoring Abilities ★ Let learners pay attention to their own speech and others’ speeches -> learners hear and try to imitate.

  13. A Description of the Sound System of English * Traditional (bottom-up) : sound → syllables → phrases and thought groups → extended discourse * the steam of speech (top-down): sound system is used naturally => both segmental and suprasegmental features

  14. A Description of the Sound System of English 1. Thought groups : * tone units, breath groups, and intonation groups * use pause to divide speech into manageable chunk -> easy to understand the main point of speech * Avoid pausing frequently

  15. A Description of the Sound System of English 1. Thought groups : *meaningful grammatical unit: Ex: I was speaking to him / on the phone yesterday. (O) I was speaking to / him on the / phone yesterday. (×)

  16. A Description of the Sound System of English 1. Thought groups : *ambiguous phrases: Ex: 1. Alfred said / the boss is stupid. 2. Alfred / said the boss / is stupid. =>Who is stupid?

  17. A Description of the Sound System of English 1. Thought groups : *speaker’s speed: 1). faster speakers have less pauses

  18. A Description of the Sound System of English 1. Thought groups : *speaker’s speed: 2). more pauses: ★politician or clergy -> emphasize on their idea and easy to process ex: My fellow citizens/this/is/our/moment. ★frustrated parents say to a recalcitrant child ex: Come/here/right/now!

  19. A Description of the Sound System of English 2. Prominence : * nuclear stress, tonic syllables, focus words, emphasis, and primary phrase stress * in thought group, an emphasized syllable is used by the way of lengthening and moving the pitch up or down Ex: I was SPEAKing to him/ on the PHONE yesterday.

  20. A Description of the Sound System of English 2. Prominence : * depends on context but generally representsinformation 1) new: ex: (I got a postcard from Sue.) She’s in MEXicao.

  21. A Description of the Sound System of English 2. Prominence : * depends on content but generally representsinformation 2) in contrast to some other previous mentioned information: ex: (Are you leaving at five thirty?) No, SIX thirty.

  22. A Description of the Sound System of English 2. Prominence : * depends on content but generally representsinformation 3) or simply the most meaningful or important item in the phrase: ex: He’s studying ecoNOMics.

  23. A Description of the Sound System of English 2. Prominence : * based on communicative context ex: I am reading. =>Which word should be focused?

  24. A Description of the Sound System of English 3. Intonation : * the melodic line or pitch pattern in thought group * the pitch movement within intonation contour occurs on the prominent element ex: Are you READy yet? No, I need to call DAVE first.

  25. A Description of the Sound System of English 3. Intonation : * regional and individual variation of authentic speech -> give “an” appropriate option about generalized patterns of specific contexts

  26. A Description of the Sound System of English 3. Intonation : * It is dangerous to make one-to-one associations between a given emotion and an intonation contour. => sometimes intonation contour couldn’t stand for the emotion exactly. (Word choice, facial expression…)

  27. A Description of the Sound System of English 4. Rhythm : *stress-timed (including longer <stressed> and shorter <unstressed> syllables): occurring at regular intervals . . . ex: She would’ve liked to have gone to the movie. <-> syllable-timed: each syllable has the same timing and length.

  28. A Description of the Sound System of English 4. Rhythm : * Which words should be stressed and which unstressed? -> ★content words (more meaning, nouns, main verbs, adjectives, and some adverbs) => O ★function words (articles, pronouns, auxiliary verbs, and prepositions) => ×

  29. A Description of the Sound System of English 4. Rhythm : * Rhythm v. s. Prominence -> ★Rhythm : “ALL” the syllables (content words) that receive stress in a thought group ★Prominence : “One” emphasized syllable in a thought group . . . ex: She attends the University of MARyland.

  30. A Description of the Sound System of English 4. Rhythm : * Traditional analytical exercises : To let students understand the rhythm BUT: For speakers, there is no time to do it during the conversation

  31. A Description of the Sound System of English 4. Rhythm : *Chelas Flores (1998): 1) apart from words and meaning 2) use written (on the board) ★dots (short syllables) ★dashes (long syllables) 3) pattern orally ★ti (unstressed syllables) ★TA (stressed syllables) ★ TAA (prominent element)

  32. A Description of the Sound System of English 4. Rhythm : *Chelas Flores (1998): Instruction: 1) teacher pronounce some patterns let students point out on the board => draw learners’ attention (internalized) 2) use the actual phrases to let students distinguish => practice meaningful phrases

  33. A Description of the Sound System of English 5. Reduced Speech : *to de-emphasize other unimportant syllables in a thought group *Two ways to reduce speech: 1) to shorten unstressed syllables 2) to relax the mouth (reduces vowels) => let learners speak quickly

  34. A Description of the Sound System of English 5. Reduced Speech : * The way of reduced vowels--- schwa / /=> relax your jaw and lip. * citation form (full, strong, or stressed ) & reduced form (unstressed or weak) Ex: citation form reduced form Has He has? /h z/ What has he done? / z/

  35. A Description of the Sound System of English 6. Linking : *adjustmentspeakers make between words in connected speech ex: Why don’t you find out? ↓ fine doubt -> link the syllables together in order to pronounce it easily

  36. A Description of the Sound System of English 5. Linking : *plurals, verb form and tense, possessive (to be conveyed by endings) ex: She changed-it. (1) ↓ change-dit. (2) -> (2) is easier to pronounce than (1) & (2) is clear to listeners

  37. A Description of the Sound System of English 6. Linking : *plurals, verb form and tense, possessive (to be conveyed by endings) ex: They live in Miami. (Present) They live-din Miami. (Past) -> focus on linked sound ﹀ ﹀

  38. A Description of the Sound System of English 7. Consonants : *Three dimensions 1) Place of articulation: Where the sound is made? 2) Manner of articulation How the sound is made? 3) Voicing Whether the vocal cords are vibrating or not

  39. A Description of the Sound System of English 7. Consonants : * decide whether phonetic symbols are necessary -> some letters are the same as the phonetic representation BUT: certain sounds are not. ex: thumb /θ/, shop / /, and so on

  40. A Description of the Sound System of English 7. Consonants : *various articulation of a consonant are based on its environment ex: p1ap2er ->p1 is aspiration (puff of air), p2 is not.

  41. A Description of the Sound System of English 7. Consonants : *Clustering: a segment is deleted and changed ex: strengths, texts, facts, and handbag -> learners should know how consonant cluster and there are acceptable cluster reduction.

  42. A Description of the Sound System of English 7. Consonants : *difficulty with sounds that don’t exist in learners’ L1 ex: th, l ,and r sounds -> focus on sounds in context

  43. A Description of the Sound System of English 8. Vowels : * the syllable core * constitute a syllable or a word ex: eye * articulation is with smooth airflow

  44. A Description of the Sound System of English 8. Vowels : * There are four dimensions 1) tongue position (front/central/back) 2) tongue and jaw height (high/mid/low) 3) degree of lip rounding (spread/round) 4) the relative tension of the muscles (tense/lax)

  45. A Description of the Sound System of English 8. Vowels : * Some challenges in teaching 1) English has more vowels than others. 2) a lot of variation in vowels between dialects ex: doll and ball -> same pronunciation 3) glide movement : eye (diphthong) 4) most vowels can be spelled in many different ways ex: /i/-> ee or ea

  46. A Description of the Sound System of English 8. Vowels : * Some challenges in teaching 5) vowels sounds are usually reduced in unstressed syllables. ex: mo1to2r -> o1 is stressed o2 is unstressed (tore=>ter) => use the relaxing of the articulators to reduce or weaken the vowel

  47. A Description of the Sound System of English 8. Vowels : * Instruction 1) show each vowel with key word (and numbers) 2) repeat key words until remember 3) unnecessary to introduce any phonetic -> easier to refer the key or the number rather than vowels

  48. A Description of the Sound System of English 9. Word stress : *There are primary stress(.), secondary stress(.) and almost no stress(.) in a word ex: . . .. . com mun i ca tion

  49. A Description of the Sound System of English 9. Word stress : *three factors 1) historical origin of a word 2) the part of speech 3) affixation

  50. A Description of the Sound System of English 9. Word stress : * In general terms 1)the root or base of a word, less on prefix ex: beLIEVE, preDICT, comPLAINT 2)compound nouns : primary stress on the first, secondary stress on the second ex: BUS stop, AIRplane