Public Speaking as Public Dialogue Cindy L. Griffin Colorado State University Public Speaking Online Lecture Series February 26, 2003
Overview: Public Speaking As Public Dialogue • What is public speaking as public dialogue? • Service learning • Invitational speaking • Benefits
Public Dialogue:The civil exchange of ideas and opinions among public groups about topics that affect the public.
The importance of dialogue:to interact, to connect, and to exchange information with other people.
An Ethic of CivilityCare and concern for others, the thoughtful use of words and language, and the flexibility to see the many sides of an issue.
To engage in a public dialogue is: torecognize the speaker and the audience are equally important, that both have opinions, feelings and beliefs
Reinforces an audience-centered approach:to acknowledge your audience by listening to the unique, diverse, and common perspectives of its members before, during and after the speech.
Why We Enter the Public Dialogue • We decide to speak • We are asked to speak • We are required to speak Understand that culture has a powerful affect on communication • Our nationality • Ethnic heritage • Our gender
Public Speaking as Public Dialogue Service Learning
Service Learning:takes students out of the classroom, applies the concepts taught in the classroom to the outside world, and engages the material in hands-on ways.
Different Service Learning Models • Solution or problem-based service-learning (consultant model) • Activity-based service learning • Information-based service-learning
Public Speaking as Public Dialogue through Service Learning • Higher caliber of speeches • Students make a personal connection • Wide-range of perspectives • Students stay and volunteer • Students see “real world” connections
SampleTopic: Neighbor to NeighborGeneral Purpose: To informSpecific Purpose: To inform my audience about the programs offered by Neighbor to Neighbor.Thesis Statement: Programs offered by Neighbor to Neighbor include mortgage counseling, rental assistance and transitional housing.Main points:I. Mortgage counseling. II. Rental assistance. III. Transitional housing.
Public Speaking as Public Dialogue Invitational Speaking
Invitational speaking is:a type of public speaking in which a speaker enters into a dialogue with an audience in order to clarify positions, explore issues and ideas, or articulate beliefs and values.
Why Give an Invitational Speech? • People have profoundly different positions • Political issues • Social issues • Religious or spiritual issues • We are not able to persuade • They are not going to change • We are not going to change
Why Give an Invitational Speech? • We want to go beyond informing • Gain a more complex understanding of the issues • Open up a space for dialogue • Options • Stop communicating • Try to persuade • Communicate from an invitational perspective
Communicate from an Invitational Perspective • Invite them into our world view • And try to see the world as they do • Dialogue about our differences • To gain a better understanding • Willing to communicate by creating a particular type of environment
An Invitational Speaking Environment • Conducive to an open dialogue • Your position is ONE viable stance • Alter traditional roles of speaker/audience • Audience expresses their views • Three conditions must exist
Establishing an Invitational Speaking Environment • Condition of equality: You see the audience members as holding valid perspectives and positions that are worthy of exploration. • Condition of value: Recognize that the views of the audience, although different from the speaker’s, have inherent value. • Condition of self-determination: Recognize that the members of your audience are experts in their own lives, or that people know what is best for them and have the right to make choices about their lives based on this knowledge.
Two Types of Invitational Speeches • Invitational speeches to articulate a position. You invite an audience to see the world as you do and to understand issues from your perspective. • Invitational speeches to explore an issue. You attempt to engage your audience in a discussion about an idea, concern, topic, or plan of action.
Speeches to Articulate a Position • To invite my audience to consider the idea that women pioneers should be represented in history textbooks. • To invite my audience to consider some of the positive lessons that can be taught with the ethical use of guns.
Invitational Speeches to Articulate a Position • You share information with the audience • But an open dialogue occurs • Richer understanding of a complex issue • Invite the audience to enter your world • Return the gesture
An Invitational Speech to Explore an Issue • Gather information to understand the subject more fully • You have thoughts about a plan/action • They are not set-in-stone • They might be tentative
Invitational Speeches to Explore an Issue • To invite my audience to explore, and to explore myself, three theories of evolution and creation and their role in public education. • To invite my audience to explore, and to explore myself, the positive and negative aspects of cloning endangered animals.
Public Speaking as Public Dialogue Benefits
Standardization: Many of the Same Skills are Learned • Critical Thinking • Distinguishing between different types of speeches • Organizational patterns • Five canons of rhetoric • Principles of Persuasion • Delivery • Reasoning effectively and ethically
New Skills Students Learn • Audience-centered • Culture • Language • Listening styles
New Skills Students Learn • Facilitating an open dialogue • Reasoning used in ALL types of speeches • Mythos in addition to • Logos, Ethos, and Pathos • Invitational speech option • To explore an issue or articulate a position • Open dialogue • New way of using language
Public Speaking as Public Dialogue Benefits
Benefits • Difficult to maintain “speech files” • Move beyond common speeches • Beer-oriented speeches • Legalization of marijuana or hemp-oriented speeches • Lowering the legal drinking age
Benefits • Assessment of student academic achievement still present • Transferability of course to other schools • Different types of speeches • Reasoning • Listening • Language • Diversity
Benefits • Service Learning • Meets requirements at Universities • Makes public speaking “real” • Keeps instructors more engaged
Benefits • Public Speaking as Public Dialogue • Teaches students to TALK about their differences OPENLY • Teaches students and faculty to be interested in diverse standpoints and positions • It helps us all make real world connections
Public Speaking As Public Dialogue Questions