How did the fur trade affect The Native Peoples of the Northwest? Chapter 4 – The Northwest to 1870
Geographical Background & Review • The Northwest is dominated by the Canadian Shield and covered by boreal forests. • Canadian Shield – area of land made up of igneous and metamorphic rock covered by a thin layer of soil from glacial impact.
Boreal forest - a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches (also known as Taiga). • Located north of the 50th parallel and covers 60% of Canada’s land mass.
Who were the First Nations People in the Northwest? • Before European contact, the Northwest was home to 5 nations: • Ojibwa • Assiniboin • Cree • Chipewyan • Inuit
Mapping Activity • Use the map provided to colourthe 5 First Nations Peoples’ territories – make a legend on the right hand side to label each territory. • Label the outline of Rupert’s Land on your map. • Label the trading routes associated with each company.
First Nations in the Fur Trade • Even prior to the 1800s, the aboriginal peoples of the Northwest had involvement in the fur trade as trappers, traders, and middlemen. • Middlemen – someone who acts as a dealer between 2 parties who want to exchange goods. • How was each group involved in the fur trade? Read the articles provided to answer the question in your notebook.
Video Canada: A People’s History • Title – Life at the Bay • Take notes by answering this question: What were David Thompson’s experiences at Fort Churchill and his observations of the First Nations people there?
How did the fur trade affect First Nations culture? (Answer the questions on p. 136 #1-3): • Forced full-time trappers to abandon their yearly cycle of fishing, hunting, and preserving food. • Caused a clash of cultural values – work, friendship, responsibility, humanity. • Exposed to diseases – smallpox and measles – no immunity (as much as 90% of pop wiped out)
Partner Quiz Game • Partner 1 - What is the Canadian Shield? • Partner 2 – What is a boreal forest? • Partner 1 – Who are the 5 first nations groups in the Northwest? • Partner 2 – How did the fur trade affect first nations culture?