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Reading Assignment:. Chapter 3 in Moyle & Cech Respiration. Effects of Properties of Water on Living Organisms. Density & Buoyancy Archimede’s Principle --when an object is immersed in a fluid, an upward force acts on it, equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. end. =. =. =. >.

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reading assignment
Reading Assignment:
  • Chapter 3 in Moyle & Cech

Respiration

effects of properties of water on living organisms
Effects of Properties of Water on Living Organisms

Density & Buoyancy

Archimede’s Principle--when an object is immersed in a fluid, an upward force acts on it, equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces

end

slide3

=

=

=

>

=

H2O

H2O

air

Archimedes Principle

positive

buoyancy

positive

buoyancy

positive

buoyancy

water

neutral

buoyancy

Fish?

negative

buoyancy

end

densities of biological substances

3

Substance

Density g/cm

lipids

0.9

freshwater (20 C)

1.002

saltwater (20 C)

1.072

muscle

1.05

bone (dry)

1.1

silaceous cell walls

2.0

cellulose

1.5

calcium carbonate

3.0

Densities of Biological Substances:

end

slide5
Slight negative buoyancy--densities of most aquatic organisms are close to that of water (usually slightly more dense)

fish densities--1.06-1.09 g/cm3

end

support
Support

Aquatic organisms are well supported due to density similarities between water and aquatic organisms

Effects--reduced energy expenditure

reduction or lack of support tissues

end

streamlined shapes
Streamlined shapes
  • Active fish tend to be streamlined due to high energy required for locomotion in water

end

ecological groups of fishes
Six general categories

body shape

habitat

general life style

Clues to lifestyle

Doesn’t fit all fishes

Rover predators

Lie-in-wait predators

Surface oriented fishes

Bottom fishes

Deep-bodied fishes

Eel-like fishes

Ecological Groups of Fishes

end

1 rover predators moving hunters
1. Rover Predators--moving hunters
  • Terminal mouth
  • Fins evenly placed (maneuverability)
  • stream-lined

brassy minnow

end

ex salmonidae
Ex: Salmonidae

brook trout

end

ex percidae
Ex: Percidae

walleye

end

2 lie in wait predator piscivores
2. Lie-in-Wait predator (piscivores)
  • Terminal mouth; large w needle-like teeth
  • Stream-lined; often elongated and thin
  • Head flattened

northern pike

end

lie in wait predator continued
Lie-in-Wait predator (continued)
  • Caudal fin large
  • Dorsal and anal fins placed posteriorly
  • Cryptic coloration

end

lepisosteidae gars
Lepisosteidae - gars

longnose gar

end

3 surface oriented fishes
3. Surface-Oriented fishes
  • Often small
  • Upward tending mouth (superior or superterminal)
  • Dorsoventrally flattened head
  • Adapted to surfacelife

Poeciliidae-live bearers

guppies

mollies

mosquitofish

Gambusia

end

slide25

Other surface oriented fishes

  • betas
  • archerfish

Gambusia

end

4 bottom fishes benthic
4. Bottom fishes (benthic)
  • Swimbladder reduced or absent
  • flattened dorsoventrally (depressed)

Atlantic halibut

end

bottom fishes continued
Bottom fishes continued
  • Specialized structures:

sensory structures barbels, fin rays

modified fins (darters, clingfishes)

barbels

end

slide29

sea robin

sea robin

end

slide30

Pleuronectiformes-flatfishes

  • flounders
  • soles
  • tonguefish

end

acipenseridae sturgeons
Acipenseridae--sturgeons

lake sturgeon

end

5 deep bodied fishes laterally flattened compressed

maneuverability

lookdown

butterfly fish

French angelfish

5. Deep-bodied fishes Laterally flattened (compressed)
  • Dorsal and anal fins long
  • Pectoral fins high on body
  • Pelvic fins thoracic
  • Mouth protrusible
  • Fin spines

end

6 eel like fishes elongated bodies
6. Eel-like fishes--elongated bodies
  • Paired fins reduced or absent
  • Dorsal and anal fins long
  • Scales small or absent
  • Flexible bodies
  • Adapted for small crevices

end

slide40

American eel

snake eel

slime eel

end

slide41

moray eel

end

end

field trip to forest river
Field Trip to Forest River
  • Collect and view fishes from various habitats—riffles, pools
  • Hone your skill with a seine
  • Not required, but fun and informative
  • Bring a friend if you like
field trip details
Field Trip Details
  • Saturday 28 September; 9:00-2:00
  • Meet at 9:00 in Starcher Hall parking lot
  • Bring drinks and a sack lunch if you wish
  • Consider whether you would be willing to drive (~45 mi)
  • We will ask who plans to attend during next week’s lab
  • Ryan and I will drive--We also will ask for volunteer drivers
field trip details47
Field Trip Details
  • Wear old clothes—be prepared for mud, bushes, and mosquitoes; plan to get wet
  • Bring waders or rubber boots if you have them
  • If it’s warm you can wear shorts and old sneakers for wading
  • Bring binoculars and field guides if you wish