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  1. Cyber Security : Indian perspective 8 Feb 2009 Dr. Gulshan Rai Director, CERT-IN Govt. of India grai@mit.gov.in

  2. Web Evolution

  3. Internet Infrastructure in INDIA 3 3

  4. Innovation fostering the Growth of NGNs • Smart devices • Television • Computers • PDA • Mobile Phone (Single device to provide an end-to-end, seamlessly secure access) • Application Simplicity • Preference of single, simple and secure interface to access applications or content • Ubiquitous interface - web browser • Flexible Infrastructure Because of these areas of evolution, today’s NGNs are defined more by the services they support than by traditional demarcation of Physical Infrastructure.

  5. The Emergence of NGNs • The communication network operating two years ago are father’s telecommunication Network. • NGNs are teenager’s Network. • No longer consumer and business accept the limitation of single-use device or network. • Both individuals and Business want the ability to communicate, work and be entertained over any device, any time, anywhere. • The demand of these services coupled with innovation in technology is advancing traditional telecommunication far outside its original purpose.

  6. Perimeter Network Intranet Laptops Extranet Servers Servers New PC Unmanaged Devices Router Router Router Internet Network Infrastructure Desktops BranchOffices BranchOffices Perimeter Network Servers Router Router Internet Unmanaged Devices Home Users Router UnmanagedDevice Remote Workers The Complexity of Today’s Network 6

  7. Challenges for Network Operator • Business challenges include new Pricing Structure, new relationship and new competitors. • Technical challenges include migrating and integrating with new advances in technologies from fibre optics, installation of Wi-Fi support. • Developing a comprehensive Security Policy and architecture in support of NGN services.

  8. To Reap Benefits • To reap benefits of NGN, the operator must address • Technology • Risk • Security • Efficiency

  9. NGN Architecture Identify Layer Compromises of end users owned by a telecom or a third-party service provider accessing services using devices like PC, PDA or mobile phone, to connect to the Internet Partly Trusted Untrusted Internet Third-Party Application Service Layer Hosts service applications and provides a framework for the creation of customer-focused services provided by either operator or a third-party service provider Web Tier Service Provider Application Service Delivery Platform Network Layer Performs service execution, service management, network management and media control functions Connects with the backbone network Service Delivery Platform (Service Provider ) Common Framework Backbone Network

  10. Growing Concern • Computing Technology has turned against us • Exponential growth in security incidents • Pentagon, US in 2007 • Estonia in April 2007 • Computer System of German Chancellory and three Ministries • Highly classified computer network in New Zealand & Australia • Complex and target oriented software • Common computing technologies and systems • Constant probing and mapping of network systems

  11. Cyber Threat Evolution Malicious Code (Melissa) Identity Theft (Phishing) Virus Advanced Worm / Trojan (I LOVE YOU) Organised Crime Data Theft, DoS / DDoS Breaking Web Sites 1977 1995 2000 2005-06 2007-08 2003-04

  12. Cyber attacks being observed Web defacement Spam Spoofing Proxy Scan Denial of Service Distributed Denial of Service Malicious Codes Virus Bots Data Theft and Data Manipulation Identity Theft Financial Frauds Social engineering Scams

  13. Security Incidents reported during 2008

  14. Trends of Incidents Sophisticated attacks Attackers are refining their methods and consolidating assets to create global networks that support coordinated criminal activity Rise of Cyber Spying and Targeted attacks Mapping of network, probing for weakness/vulnerabilities Malware propagation through Website intrusion Large scale SQL Injection attacks like Asprox Botnet Malware propagation through Spam on the rise Storm worm, which is one of the most notorious malware programs seen during 2007-08, circulates through spam

  15. Trends of Incidents Phishing Increase in cases of fast-flux phishing and rock-phish Domain name phishing and Registrar impersonation Crimeware Targeting personal information for financial frauds Information Stealing through social networking sites Rise in Attack toolkits Toolkits like Mpack and Neospolit can launch exploits for browser and client-side vulnerabilities against users who visit a malicious or compromised sites

  16. Global Attack Trend Source: Websense

  17. Top originating countries – Malicious code

  18. Three faces of cyber crime • Organised Crime • Terrorist Groups • Nation States

  19. Security of Information Assets • Security of information & information assets is becoming a major area of concern • With every new application, newer vulnerabilities crop up, posing immense challenges to those who are mandated to protect the IT assets • Coupled with this host of legal requirements and international business compliance requirements on data protection and privacy place a huge demand on IT/ITES/BPO service organizations • We need to generate ‘Trust & Confidence’

  20. Challenges before the Industry

  21. Model Followed Internationally • Internationally, the general approach has been to have legal drivers supported by suitable verification mechanism. • For example, in USA Legal drivers have been • SOX • HIPPA • GLBA • FISMA etc. • In Europe, the legal driver has been the “Data Protection Act” supported by ISO27001 ISMS.

  22. Information Security Management INFORMATION SECURITY Availability Confidentiality Integrity Authenticity Security Policy People Regulatory Compliance User Awareness Program Access Control Process Security Audit Incident Response Encryption, PKI Firewall, IPS/IDS Technology Antivirus

  23. Cyber Security Strategy – India • Security Policy, Compliance and Assurance – Legal Framework • IT Act, 2000 • IT (Amendment) Bill, 2006 – Data Protection & Computer crimes • Best Practice ISO 27001 • Security Assurance Framework- IT/ITES/BPO Companies • Security Incident – Early Warning & Response • CERT-In National Cyber Alert System • Information Exchange with international CERTs • Capacity building • Skill & Competence development • Training of law enforcement agencies and judicial officials in the collection and analysis of digital evidence • Training in the area of implementing information security in collaboration with Specialised Organisations in US • Setting up Digital Forensics Centres • Domain Specific training – Cyber Forensics • Research and Development • Network Monitoring • Biometric Authentication • Network Security • International Collaboration

  24. Status of security and quality compliance in India • Quality and Security • Large number of companies in India have aligned their internal process and practices to international standards such as • ISO 9000 • CMM • Six Sigma • Total Quality Management • Some Indian companies have won special recognition for excellence in quality out of 18 Deming Prize winners for Total Quality Management in the last five years, six are Indian companies.

  25. ISO 27001/BS7799 Information Security Management • Government has mandated implementation of ISO27001 ISMS by all critical sectors • ISMS 27001 has mainly three components • Technology • Process • Incident reporting and monitoring • 296 certificates issued in India out of 7735 certificates issued worldwide • Majority of certificates issued in India belong to IT/ITES/BPO sector

  26. Information Technology – Security Techniques Information Security Management System World China Italy Japan Spain India USA ISO 9000 951486 210773 115309 73176 65112 46091 36192 (175 counties) 27001 7732 146 148 276 93 296 94

  27. Analysis Detection Dissemination & Support Department of Information Technology ISP Hot Liners Major ISPs Private Sectors Foreign Ptns Home Users Analysis Press & TV / Radio Detect Dissemination Recovery CERT-In Work Process

  28. Distributed Honeypot Deployment

  29. PC & End User Security: Auto Security Patch Update Windows Security Patch Auto Update Microsoft Download Ctr. Internet ActiveX DL Server No. of Download ActiveX: 18 Million Sec. Patch ActiveX Site

  30. PC & End User Security Incident Response Help Desk Internet PSTN • Make a call using 1800 – 11 - 4949 • Send fax using 1800 – 11 - 6969 • Communicate through email at incident@cert-in.org.in • Number of security incidents handled during 2008 (till Oct): 1425 • Vulnerability Assessment Service

  31. Int’l Co-op: Cyber Security Drill Joint International Incident Handling Coordination Drill • Participated APCERT International Incident Handling Drill 2006 • Participants: 13 APCERT Members and New Zealand, Vietnam including 5 major Korean ISPs • Scenario: Countermeasure against Malicious Code and relevant infringement as DDoS attack • Participated APCERT International Incident Handling Drill 2007 • Participants: 13 APCERT Members + Korean ISPs • Scenario: DDoS and Malicious Code Injection • To be Model: World Wide Cyber Security Incidents Drill among security agencies

  32. Thank you Incident Response Help Desk Phone: 1800 11 4949 FAX: 1800 11 6969 e-mail: incident at cert-in.org.in http://www.cert-in.org.in