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Animal Science/Dairy Science 434. Reproductive Physiology Lecture 1: Female Anatomy. Lecture 1. Female Reproductive Tract Anatomy. Learning Objectives. To be able to describe the female reproductive system in cattle. Structure Function. Male. Stallion. Female. Mare. Equine - Horse.

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animal science dairy science 434

Animal Science/Dairy Science 434

Reproductive Physiology

Lecture 1: Female Anatomy

lecture 1
Lecture 1

Female Reproductive Tract Anatomy

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • To be able to describe the female reproductive system in cattle.
    • Structure
    • Function
equine horse

Male

Stallion

Female

Mare

Equine - Horse
ovine sheep

Male

Ram

Female

Ewe

Ovine - Sheep
avian chicken

Male

Rooster

Female

Hen

Avian - Chicken
slide9

Uterine Body

Uterine Horn

Uterine Horn

Ovary

Ovary

Oviduct

Oviduct

Cervix

Bladder

Vagina

Urethra

Clitoris

Vulva

slide10

Rectum

Uterus

Vulva

Ovary

Vagina

Pelvis

Bladder

Cervix

Oviduct

Broad Ligament

broad ligament
Broad Ligament
  • connective tissue sheet which supports and suspends the reproductive tract
broad ligament1
Broad Ligament

mesometrium

mesovarium

mesosalpinx

ovary primary sex organ
Ovary - Primary Sex Organ
  • Functions
    • Hormonal
      • Estrogen
      • Progesterone
    • Female gamete
      • Oocyte
ovary

Follicle

Corpus Luteum

Corpus Luteum

Progesterone

Progesterone

Ovary

- Estrogen, Oocyte

slide15

Germinal

Epithelium

Cortex

Medulla

Blood and lymphatic

Vessels & nerves

}

Hilus

Ovary

85% of Ovarian

Cancers

Tunica

Albuginea

slide16

Ruptured follicle

(ovulation)

Tertiary follicle

Primary follicle

Egg nest

Tertiary

follicle

Secondary follicle

Corpus

hemorrhagicum

Corpus albicans

Corpus luteum

Atretic follicle

slide17

Ruptured follicle

(ovulation)

Tertiary follicle

Primary follicle

Tertiary

follicle

Secondary follicle

Corpus

hemorrhagicum

Corpus albicans

Corpus luteum

Atretic follicle

slide18

Ruptured follicle

(ovulation)

Tertiary follicle

Primary follicle

Tertiary

follicle

Secondary follicle

Corpus

hemorrhagicum

Corpus albicans

Corpus luteum

Atretic follicle

slide19

Ruptured follicle

(ovulation)

Tertiary follicle

Primary follicle

Tertiary

follicle

Secondary follicle

Corpus

hemorrhagicum

Corpus albicans

Corpus luteum

Atretic follicle

slide20

Primordial Follicle

Primary Follicle

Secondary follicle

Tertiary follicle

  • Flattened cells surround oocyte

Nucleus

Ooplasma

  • Increase in size of oocyte andheight of follicular cells

Follicular Cells

Oocyte

  • Surrounded by severallayers of follicular cells
  • Follicle forms a fluidfilled cavity
  • Differentiation of cell layersin the follicle wall

Antrum

Follicle Cells

slide21

Theca Externa

Theca Interna

Basement

Membrane

Granulosa

Oocyte

Cumulus Oophorus

Tertiary Follicle

Antrum

(Follicular Fluid)

tertiary follicle
Tertiary Follicle

Theca Interna

Granulosa

Oocyte

Cumulus

Oophorus

Antrum

follicular blood supply
Follicular Blood Supply

Theca interna cells

Basement Membrane

Granulosa cells

Capillary

network

Follicular

fluid

secondary sex organ a series of tubes to convey the oocyte embryo fetus to the outside
Secondary Sex Organ: A Series of Tubes to Convey the Oocyte/Embryo/Fetus to the Outside

Serosa

Submucosa

Longitudinal smooth

muscle layer

Lumen

Circular smooth

muscle layer

Mucosa

Muscularis

functions of oviduct
Functions of Oviduct
  • Gamete Transport
    • Sperm
    • Oocyte
  • Supports early embryo development
  • Transport of embryo to uterus
slide26

Isthmus

Utero-Tubal Junction

Ampullary-Isthmic

Junction

Ampulla

Infundibulum

(20 - 30 cm2)

Ostium

Fimbria

Uterine Horn

Oviduct

Cumulus Oophorus

and Oocyte

Ovary

Follicle

oviduct
Oviduct

Ampulla

Mesosalpinx

Isthmus

UT Junction

Uterine Horn

oviduct histology
Oviduct Histology

Mucosa

  • Ciliated Columnar
  • Nonciliated Columnar
functions of the uterus
Functions of the Uterus
  • Muscle contractions
    • Transport sperm
    • Expel fetus and placenta
  • Absorption and phagocytosis
  • Partially prepares sperm for fertilization
    • capacitation
  • Provides environment for embryo and fetal growth
  • Hormone production
    • Prostaglandin F2a production
uterus bovine

horn

Uterus (bovine)

body

  • Bicornuate
    • poorly to moderately developed uterine horns
    • uterine body
    • one cervix

cervix

uterine histology
Uterine Histology

Endometrium

Endometrial

Glands

Perimetrium

Myometrium

uterine histology1
Uterine Histology

Mucosa

Endometrial

Gland

Endometrium

Submucosa

Myometrium

Perimetrium

functions of the cervix
Functions of the Cervix
  • Transport of sperm
  • Barrier to sperm (species dependent)
  • Reservoir for sperm
  • Blocking bacterial invasion during pregnancy
  • Birth canal
slide35

Internal Cervical Os

External Cervical Os

COW

Uterine Body

  • Cervix is composed of thick connective tissue
  • Mucus is secreted near the time of breeding and ovulation.

Cervix

Cow has 4-5

annular rings

Vagina

cervix
Cervix

COW

Internal Os

Cervical

Ring

Cervical

Ring

Fornix

Fornix

External Os

Fornix

EWE

Anterior Vagina

Anterior Vagina

functions of the vagina
Functions of the Vagina
  • Copulatory organ
  • Glands secrete lubrication
  • Birth canal
  • Glands secrete pheromones
vagina

Posterior Vagina (Vestibule)

Fornix

Vulva-Vaginal Sphincter

Mucosa

Vagina

Anterior Vagina

Cervix

Stratified

Squamous

Epithelium

Columnar

Epithelium

Urethra

Submucosa

Submucosa

posterior vaginal histology
Posterior Vaginal Histology

Stratified Squamous

Epithelium

Mucosa

Submucosa

function of external genitalia
Function of External Genitalia
  • Labia
    • Closes entrance to vagina
  • Clitoris
    • Female sensory organ
external genitalia of the cow
External Genitalia of the Cow

Anus

Vulva

Labia

Clitoris

Labia

phenomena for fertility
Phenomena For Fertility
  • vagina dentata - a vagina with teeth
  • female bedbug - no vagina
  • hysterectomy - if woman went to long without becoming pregnant then uterus would wonder in body causing hysteria and other distresses
  • hyena - clitoris is very large and looks like the male penis; female also has a false scrotum (labia); female is the dominate sex and produces more testosterone than male
slide43

Ruptured follicle

(ovulation)

Tertiary follicle

Primary follicle

Egg nest

Tertiary

follicle

Secondary follicle

Corpus

hemorrhagicum

Corpus albicans

Corpus luteum

Atretic follicle