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Bioterrorism Awareness: Protection of Human and Animal Health. Companion animal veterinarians. Why Are We Here?. September 11, 2001 changed many things Worst terrorist act in U.S. history More than 3,000 presumed dead Occurred on American soil Increased sense of vulnerability.

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Presentation Transcript
why are we here
Why Are We Here?
  • September 11, 2001 changed many things
    • Worst terrorist act in U.S. history
    • More than 3,000 presumed dead
    • Occurred on American soil
    • Increased sense of vulnerability

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

biological attack
Biological Attack
  • Bioterrorism attacks of 2001
    • Anthrax in postal system
      • 22 cases
      • 5 deaths
  • U.S. public health realm changed forever

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

preparedness responsibilities veterinarians
Preparedness Responsibilities: Veterinarians
  • Anticipate outbreaks on the local level
  • Collect and label samples
  • Know the agents
  • Know the typical signs of diseases
    • Animals and human
  • Know how to report suspected cases
  • Disseminate knowledge

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

overview
Overview
  • Bioterrorism
  • Zoonoses and bioterrorism
  • Disease control and biosecurity
  • U.S. Government agencies involved
  • Bioterrorism agents/diseases
  • Your role and responsibility

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

slide6

Agroterrorism

Bioterrorism

Other

Terrorism

  • Biological, chemical, or radiological agents targeting agriculture or its components
    • Livestock
    • Food supply
    • Crops
    • Industry
    • Workers
  • Conventional, radiological, nuclear, chemical,cyber
    • Typically direct human targeting

Biological agents targeting humans, animals, or plants

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

characteristics of a biological attack
Characteristics of a Biological Attack
  • Difficult to detect release
  • Dissemination may cover large area
  • Possible secondary spread
  • Recognition of agent may be delayed days to weeks
  • Difficulties in catching perpetrator

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

infectious disease outbreak

Exposure

Symptoms

Seek Care

No. Affected

Infectious Disease Outbreak

Time (Days)

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

clues suggesting biological agent release
Clues Suggesting Biological Agent Release
  • Clustering of morbidity or mortality
    • Temporally or geographically
    • Large numbers of animals and/or people
    • Atypical symptoms
  • Normally healthy people affected
  • Unusual symptoms for area
  • Unusual age distribution
  • Disease occurring outside typical season

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

many agents are zoonotic
Many Agents are Zoonotic
  • Disease may be seen in animals before humans
  • Animals are sentinels
    • Pets, livestock, wildlife

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

factors that promote transmission of zoonoses
Factors That Promote Transmission of Zoonoses
  • Frequent contact with domestic or wild animals
  • Overlap with wildlife habitat
  • Intensive livestock production
  • Poor animal sanitation
  • Poor personal hygiene
  • Poor animal health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

disease control client education
Disinfect/clean up areas contaminated with animal waste

Livestock, pets, wildlife, rodents

Basic hygiene

Wash hands

Child supervision

Disease Control: Client Education

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

zoonoses control client education
Zoonoses Control:Client Education
  • Proper pet selection
  • Use caution at petting zoos
  • Cook food properly
  • Control strays
  • Communication with physician and veterinarian
  • Follow guidelines for immunocompromised people

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

disease control veterinarians
Disease Control: Veterinarians
  • Restrict animal movement, contact in hospital
  • Appropriate disinfection of hands, exam, waiting rooms, surgical suites
  • Regularly disinfect animal holding areas and adequately ventilate
  • Designated isolation area with posted protocols

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

u s agencies

U.S. Agencies

Dealing with terrorism

public health security and bioterrorism preparedness response act of 2002
Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response Act of 2002
  • June 12, 2002
  • Improve ability of the U.S. to prevent, prepare for, and respond to bioterrorism and other public health emergencies
  • $4.3 billion to various federal, state and local agencies
    • Upgrade facilities, enhance security, etc

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

department of homeland security dhs
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
  • Established January, 2003
  • Mission
    • Prevent, protect, and respond to acts of terrorism on U.S. soil
  • Established four policy directorates
    • Responsibilities for coordinating HHS and USDA
    • Guard borders and airports, coordinate the response for future emergencies, analyze threats and intelligence, protect our critical infrastructure

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

centers for disease control and prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • CDC's Mission
    • Promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability
  • Preparing for bioterrorism since 1998
  • One of the first agencies to respond to anthrax incidents of 2001

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

strategic national stockpile
Strategic National Stockpile
  • 12-hour Push Package
    • Complete package of medical materials
  • Vendor Managed Inventory
    • Tailored to suspected agents

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

insert your state s info here
Insert Your State’s Info Here

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

preparing iowa
Preparing Iowa
  • Iowa’s Homeland Security
    • Administered by Iowa Emergency Management Division
    • Works with public and private partners

www.iowahomelandsecurity.org

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

preparing iowa22
Preparing Iowa
  • Iowa Department of Public Health www.idph.state.ia.us/odedp
  • Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship
    • Highly infectious animal disease program
    • IRVIN: Iowa Rapid Veterinary Information Network
  • CFSPH training veterinarians to educate others

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

classification
Classification
  • Prepared by the CDC’s Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Office
  • Category A: Highest priority
  • Category B: Second highest priority
  • Category C: Third highest priority

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

weaponization of agents
“Weaponization” of Agents
  • Alter characteristics of a pathogen to make it a more effective weapon
    • Enhance transmission
    • Increase virulence
    • Resistant to antibiotics
    • Evade vaccine protection
    • Alter clinical signs

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

note to presenter
Note to presenter
  • As time allows select diseases you would like to review.
  • If you have limited time you should focus on the Category A agents.
  • The disease coverage is brief. If you would like more information on a disease, refer to the fact sheet or to the disease specific presentation.

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

category a agents diseases
Category A : Agents/Diseases
  • Anthrax
  • Botulism
  • Plague
  • Smallpox
  • Tularemia
  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

anthrax the agent
Anthrax: The Agent
  • Bacteria: Bacillus anthracis
  • Forms spores
  • Human disease
    • Skin
    • Intestinal
    • Pulmonary
  • Animal disease
    • Septicemia and rapid death

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

anthrax the bioweapon
Anthrax: The Bioweapon
  • History
  • Available & easily produced
  • Spores infective
  • Aerosolization
  • Low lethal dose
  • High mortality
  • Person-to-person transmission rare

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

anthrax the response
Anthrax: The Response
  • Vaccine
    • Humans
    • Animals
  • Antibiotics
    • Treatment
    • Prophylaxis
  • Disinfection
    • Sporicidal agents, sterilization

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

botulism the agent
Botulism: The Agent
  • Clostridium botulinum – Gram pos, spore-forming bacteria
  • 7 different neurotoxins
    • Types A-G
  • Clinical signs
    • Flaccid paralysis
    • Pigs, dogs, and cats

fairly resistant

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

botulism the bioweapon
Botulism: The Bioweapon
  • Used by Aum Shinrikyo cult in Japan
  • Aerosolized
  • Easy to produce and transport
  • Potent and lethal
  • Most poisonous substance known

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

botulism the response
Botulism: The Response
  • Toxoids for high risk people
  • Antitoxin available
    • Case-by-case basis
  • Botulinum toxins are easily inactivated with many disinfectants and heat

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

plague the agent
Plague: The Agent
  • Yersinia pestis
    • Gram neg, transmitted by fleabites, aerosol, direct contact
  • Symptoms: Humans
    • Bubonic, septicemic, pneumonic
  • Symptoms: Animals
    • Cat: Similar to human
    • Dogs, livestock: Somewhat resistant

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

plague the bioweapon
Plague: The Bioweapon
  • WHO estimate
    • 50kg agent: City population 5 million
    • 150,000 cases pneumonic plague
    • Potential mortality: 100,000
  • Available
  • Person-to-person transmission
  • Pneumonic form ~ 100% fatal if untreated

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

plague the response
Plague: The Response
  • Antibiotics generally effective if given early
  • Killed vaccine available
  • Isolation of sick individuals
  • Susceptible to a number of common disinfectants

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

smallpox the agent
Smallpox: The Agent
  • Variola virus, Orthopoxvirus
  • Eradicated from the world in 1977
  • Narrow host range: Humans only
  • Transmission: Person-to-person, fomites, aerosols
  • Clinical signs
    • Flu-like, progressive skin eruptions

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

smallpox the bioweapon
Smallpox: The Bioweapon
  • Used historically
  • Disease signals a bioterrorism event
    • Susceptible population
  • Easy to produce large scale
  • Aerosolization
  • Secondary spread
    • Person-to-person
    • Fomites
  • Mortality approximately 30%

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

smallpox the response
Smallpox: The Response
  • No specific treatment
  • Vaccinia virus vaccination
  • Vaccinia Immune Globulin
  • Isolation of infected individuals
  • Ring vaccination program
  • Disinfection of environment, clothing with various chemicals, boiling or autoclaving

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

tularemia the agent
Tularemia: The Agent
  • Francisella tularensis
  • Transmitted by ingestion, inhalation, vectors, direct contact through skin
  • Six clinical forms in humans

Glandular

Ulceroglandular

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

tularemia the agent41
Tularemia: The Agent
  • Sheep, young pigs, horses, dogs, cats
    • Sudden fever, lethargy, stiffness, prostration, and death
  • Wildlife
    • Usually find dead
    • Rabbits behave strangely
  • Cattle, older pigs resistant

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

tularemia the bioweapon
Tularemia: The Bioweapon
  • Stable
  • Aerosolized
  • Low infective dose via inhalation
  • Case fatality: 30-60% (untreated )
  • WHO estimation: 1970
    • 50 kg agent: City population 5 million
      • 250,000 ill
      • 19,000 deaths

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

tularemia the response
Tularemia: The Response
  • Person-to-person transmission not documented
  • Antibiotics effective if early or prophylactic
  • Vaccine
    • For high risk individuals
    • Unknown efficacy

against inhalational

tularemia

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

viral hemorrhagic fevers the agents
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers:The Agents
    • Early: Fever, fatigue
    • Severe: Bleed from internal organs, body orifices
    • Progression to shock & seizures
  • Animals: Only non-human primates susceptible
  • Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Machupo
  • Human clinical presentation

Vincent Massey

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

vhf the bioweapons
VHF: The Bioweapons
  • Aerosolized
  • Not readily available, require specialized production
  • Person-to-person and nosocomial transmission occur
  • Untreated fatality rate variable
    • Humans: 25-90%
    • Non-human primates: 50-100%

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

vhf the response
VHF: The Response
  • Intensive supportive care
  • Ribavirin has shown some efficacy
  • Susceptible to bleach solutions, phenolic disinfectants, and UV light

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

category b agents diseases
Brucellosis

Glanders

Melioidosis

Psittacosis

Q Fever

Typhus fever

Viral encephalitis

Toxins

Food Safety Threats

Water Safety Threats

Category B: Agents/Diseases

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

brucellosis the agent
Brucellosis: The Agent
  • Gram-negative bacteria
  • Ingestion, inhalation, or direct contact
  • Clinical signs
    • Humans: Cyclic fever and

flu-like symptoms

    • Animals: Reproductive signs

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

brucellosis the agent49
Brucellosis: The Agent

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

brucellosis the bioweapon
Brucellosis: The Bioweapon
  • History
  • Highly infectious
  • Easily aerosolized
  • Stable
  • Prolonged incubation period
    • May make diagnosis difficult
  • Person-to-person unlikely

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

brucellosis the response
Brucellosis: The Response
  • Long term antibiotics generally effective
  • Vaccinate calves, no human vaccine
  • Eliminate reservoir
  • Standard precaution to avoid exposure
  • Thorough disinfection

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

glanders the agent
Glanders: The Agent
  • Burkholderia mallei: Gram-negative
  • Transmission by ingestion, inhalation, or direct contact
    • Animal-to-human transmission is inefficient
  • Clinical signs
    • Humans & horses: Cutaneous and pulmonary lesions, rapidly fatal illness

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

glanders the bioweapon
Glanders: The Bioweapon
  • History
    • WWI Russian horses
    • WWII Chinese civilians, horses, POW’s
  • Easy to produce
  • Aerosolized, highly infectious
  • Mortality high in chronic form
    • 50-70%
  • Person to person transmission: Rare

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

glanders the response
Glanders: The Response
  • No vaccine
  • Antibiotic therapy likely effective
  • Destroyed by various chemicals

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

melioidosis the agent
Melioidosis: The Agent
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei: Gram-negative
  • Transmission: Contact, ingestion, inhalation
  • Clinical signs: Humans, sheep, goats, and pigs
    • Asymptomatic to pneumonia, lung and wound abscesses

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

melioidosis the bioweapon
Melioidosis: The Bioweapon
  • Easy to produce
  • Available
  • Aerosolization
  • High mortality: 90%
  • Person-to-person (rare)
  • Animal-to-person (rare)

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

melioidosis the response
Melioidosis: The Response
  • Long-term, multiple antibiotics effective
  • Vaccines available: Not in U.S.
  • Easily destroyed by disinfectants

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

psittacosis the agent
Psittacosis: The Agent
  • Chlamydophila psittaci
    • Gram-negative
  • Occurs worldwide
  • Reportable in U.S.
  • Clinical disease in humans and birds
    • Asymptomatic
    • Systemic illness with severe pneumonia

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

psittacosis the bioweapon
Psittacosis: The Bioweapon
  • Easily obtained
  • Aerosolized
  • Stable in the environment
  • Person-to-person transmission rare
  • Low mortality

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

psittacosis the response
Psittacosis: The Response
  • Antibiotics generally effective
  • Decontamination possible with most disinfectants

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

q fever the agent
Q Fever: The Agent
  • Coxiella burnetii
  • Transmission: Inhalation, direct contact, ingestion, ticks
  • Disease symptoms
    • Humans:
      • Acute: Flu-like + pneumonia & hepatitis
      • Chronic: Endocarditis, osteomyelitis
    • Animals: Most asymptomatic
      • Sheep, cattle and goats: Abortions

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

q fever the bioweapon
Q Fever: The Bioweapon
  • History
  • Easily accessible
  • Environmentally

resistant

  • Highly infectious
  • Aerosolization
    • Travel ½ mile by wind
  • Low mortality- chronic morbidity

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

q fever the response
Q Fever: The Response
  • Often self-limiting disease
  • Antibiotic therapy may limit complications
  • Vaccine developed, not available in U.S.
  • Variable susceptibility to disinfectants

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

typhus fever the agent
Typhus Fever: The Agent
  • Rickettsia prowazekii: Rickettsial organism
  • Endemic in Eastern Europe, Middle East, and parts of Africa
  • Transmitted in feces of human body louse
  • Clinical signs: Humans
    • Fever, headache, macular

eruptions, and petechial rash

  • Not seen in domestic animals

J. Kalisch

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

typhus fever the bioweapon
Typhus Fever: The Bioweapon
  • WHO estimation: 1970
    • 50 kg agent; 5 million people in city
    • 125,000 ill
    • 8,000 deaths
  • Available
  • Can be aerosolized in lice feces

U.S. Typhus Commission

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

typhus fever the response
Typhus Fever: The Response
  • Antibiotics are generally effective
  • Vaccine, not commercially available

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

viral encephalitis the agent
Viral Encephalitis: The Agent
  • The Alphaviruses: EEE, WEE, and VEE
  • Transmitted via mosquito
  • Clinical signs
    • Humans, horses, donkeys,

mules: Often asymptomatic

to flu-like

    • Encephalitis in small proportions
  • Birds are asymptomatic carriers, act as sentinels

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

viral encephalitis the bioweapon
Viral Encephalitis:The Bioweapon
  • Easy to produce
  • Aerosolization
  • High rate of infection
  • Person-to-person transmission possible

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

viral encephalitis the response
Supportive care

Vaccine

Equine

Human: High risk

Virus unstable in environment

Viral Encephalitis:The Response

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

category c
Category C
  • Nipah virus
  • Hantavirus

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

nipah virus the agent
Nipah Virus: The Agent
  • Paramyxovirus
  • Fruit bat reservoir
  • Clinical signs
    • Humans: Encephalitis
    • Pigs: Respiratory, neurological
    • Dogs and cats: “Distemper”

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

nipah virus the bioweapon
Nipah Virus: The Bioweapon
  • Aerosolization potential
  • Wide host range
  • No person-to-person transmission expected
  • High morbidity and mortality

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

nipah virus the response
Nipah Virus: The Response
  • Avoid contact with all infected animals and fluids
  • Vaccine being researched
  • Call authorities immediately

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

hantavirus the agent
Hantavirus: The Agent
  • Bunyaviridae family
  • Asymptomatic reservoir: Rodents
  • Transmission: Inhalation,

ingestion, direct contact

  • Human clinical signs
    • Fever, myalgia, headache
    • Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
    • Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome
  • Not seen in domestic animals

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

hantavirus the bioweapon
Hantavirus: The Bioweapon
  • Aerosolized
  • Hospitalization
  • Unexpected disease in the U.S.
    • HFRS limited to Asia/Europe to date

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

hantavirus the response
Hantavirus: The Response
  • Supportive care
  • Limit exposure to rodent excrement
    • Wear gloves, face mask
  • Virus is deactivated with bleach

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

other important diseases
Other Important Diseases
  • Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE)
  • Rift Valley Fever
  • Hendra Virus
  • West Nile Virus
  • Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Monkeypox

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

transmissible spongiform encephalopathy the agent
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy: The Agent
  • Prions
    • Proteinaceous infectious particles
    • Mutated proteins
  • Very long incubation period
  • Neurological signs in all species
  • No treatment available

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
  • Mad cow disease
  • Incubation: 2 to 8 years
  • 1995, United Kingdom
    • vCJD
    • People exposed to BSE
      • Before bovine offal ban in 1989
  • Active U.S. surveillance since 1990

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

tse the response
TSE: The Response
  • Very resistant
    • Heat, sterilization and disinfectants
  • Early identification not possible
    • Lack of host immune response
    • Long incubation period
  • No effective treatment or vaccine
  • Surveillance program
  • Import restrictions

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

rift valley fever the agent
Rift Valley Fever: The Agent
  • Phlebovirus in family Bunyaviridae
  • Transmission: Mosquito, inhalation, contact with infected body fluids
  • Clinical signs
    • Humans: Flu-like, fever, headache
      • Severe disease: Retinitis, hemorrhagic fever
    • Animals: Abortions, death in neonates

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

rift valley fever the bioweapon
Rift Valley Fever: The Bioweapon
  • WHO estimate: 1970
    • 50 kg of virus aerosolized
    • 35,000 incapacitated
    • 400 deaths (1% mortality)
  • Stable at most temperatures
  • Inactivated by various chemicals

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

rift valley fever the response
Rift Valley Fever: The Response
  • Vaccinate ruminants in endemic areas
  • Control mosquitoes
  • Avoid contact with infected tissues & blood
    • Wear protective clothing
  • No person-to-person transmission

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

hendra virus the agent
Hendra Virus: The Agent
  • Newly discovered
    • Australia
  • Fruit bats
  • Transmission: Urine, body fluids
  • Incubation: 6-18 days
  • Humans
    • Flu-like illness, respiratory failure
  • Horses, cats
    • Acute respiratory signs, nasal discharge, fever, encephalitis, sudden death

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

hendra virus the response
Hendra Virus: The Response
  • Little is known about disease
  • Highest level of security to work with the agent
  • Potentially serious consequences
    • High mortality rate
    • Lack of treatment

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

west nile virus the agent
West Nile Virus: The Agent
  • Flavivirus
  • Transmission
    • Mosquitoes: Culex species
    • Blood transfusion, organ donation, breast feeding
  • Animals: Horses, birds, mammals, and reptiles
  • Humans
    • Duration: 3-6 days
    • 80% have no signs
    • 20% develop “West Nile Fever”

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

west nile virus public health significance
West Nile Virus: Public Health Significance
  • Human illness in U.S. in 2003
    • 9,100 cases, 222 deaths
  • Horses illness in U.S. in 2003
    • 4,554 cases
    • 40% of ill result in death
  • Method of introduction to U.S. unknown

*data current as of 1/30/04

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

spread of wnv in the u s 1999 2002
Spread of WNV in the U.S.: 1999-2002

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

west nile virus the response
West Nile Virus: The Response
  • Treatment: Supportive care
  • Vaccine available for horses, not humans
  • Source elimination
    • Mosquito larval habitats
  • Personal protection
    • Reduce time outdoors
    • Wear long pants and sleeves
    • Use mosquito repellent

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

foot and mouth disease fmd
Foot and Mouth Disease: FMD
  • Picornavirus
  • Transmission: Direct contact, aerosol, fomites
  • Species: Cloven-hooved animals (not horses)
  • Signs: Fever, vesicles, salivation, lameness
  • Extremely rare, mild symptoms in people

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

fmd agroterrorism threat
FMD: Agroterrorism Threat
  • Most important livestock disease in the world
  • U.S. agriculture as a target
    • One sixth of the U.S. domestic product is tied to agriculture
    • Immunologically naive population
  • Vulnerabilities
    • Increased travel, poor biosecurity

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

fmd the response
FMD: The Response
  • USDA upgrading safeguarding measures
  • Strict biosecurity
  • Notify authorities immediately
  • Response and recovery plans
    • Quarantine
    • Depopulation
    • Disinfection
  • Vaccination – complex decision

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

monkeypox the agent
Monkeypox: The Agent
  • Orthopoxvirus, related to smallpox
  • Transmission
    • Reservoir may be African squirrel
    • Bites, aerosol, direct contact
    • Zoonotic, animal-to-animal, person-to-person
  • Animals: Fever, rash, pustules conjunctivitis
  • Humans: Flu-like, rash, pustules, lymphadenopathy

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

monkeypox public health significance
Monkeypox: Public Health Significance
  • 2003 U.S. Outbreak
    • Zoonotic disease
    • 6 Midwestern states
  • Animal illness
    • Suspect cases: 93
    • Confirmed cases: 10
  • Human illness
    • Suspect cases: 72
    • Confirmed cases: 37
      • All had contact with infected prairie dogs
  • Potential bioweapon

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

monkeypox the response
Monkeypox: The Response
  • Treatment: supportive care
  • Smallpox vaccination
    • Moderately protective (85% of cases)
    • 30 individuals in 2003, no adverse events
  • Infection Control
    • EPA registered detergent disinfectant
    • 0.5% sodium hypochlorite (bleach)
  • Embargo
  • Euthanasia of animals
  • Quarantine for 6 weeks

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

opportunities for the veterinary profession
Opportunities for the Veterinary Profession
  • Integrate into the public health system
    • Be aware, contribute, assist in development of surveillance programs
    • Report trends in disease and clinical signs
    • Be involved with emergency response plans at all levels

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

the veterinarian s responsibility98
The Veterinarian’s Responsibility
  • Guardian of animal and public health
  • Sharpen awareness of potential bioterrorism
  • Alert officials early
  • You are the expert
    • Provide leadership and input to clients and community

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

what to do if bioterrorism is suspected
What to do if bioterrorism is suspected
  • Stay informed and remain calm
  • Response is event specific
  • Response is everyone's responsibility
  • Follow the advice of public health officials
  • Follow federal and state guidelines
  • Movement restrictions may be necessary

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

contacts
Contacts
  • Phone numbers to know
    • State Veterinarian
    • State Public Health Veterinarian
    • APHIS- Area Veterinarian in Charge
    • Public Health Officials

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

summary
Summary
  • Bioterrorism is a real threat
  • Public health infrastructure is being strengthened
  • Many bioterrorism agents are zoonotic
  • Awareness education is an important component of preparedness and protection

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

summary102
Summary
  • Prevention, recognition, and response involves everyone
  • Report any suspicious activity, unexplained behavior or death loss in your clients’ herd or flock
  • You play a critical role

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

conclusion
Conclusion

“The best prescription,

is knowledge.”

Dr. C. Everett Koop

Former U.S. Surgeon General

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

Development of this presentation was funded by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University.

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005

acknowledgments105
Acknowledgments

Author:

Reviewers:

Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MS, MPH

Radford Davis, DVM, MPH

Gayle Brown, DVM, PhD

Jean Gladon, BS

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2005