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Animal Waste Management. Animal Waste Management. Outline Manure/Waste Characteristics Animal Waste Handling Systems Sampling. What is Manure or Waste?. Manure = Feces + Urine as excreted Waste = Manure + Bedding + Wasted feed + Leaked water + etc. Manure/Waste Quantity and Composition.

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Animal Waste Management


  • Manure/Waste Characteristics
  • Animal Waste Handling Systems
  • Sampling
what is manure or waste
What is Manure or Waste?
  • Manure = Feces + Urine as excreted
  • Waste = Manure + Bedding + Wasted feed + Leaked water + etc
manure waste quantity and composition
Manure/Waste Quantity and Composition

Depends on:

  • Animal species
  • Diet - digestibility, protein, fiber content
  • Animal age & productivity
  • Number of animals
  • Waste handling system (added H20, bedding)
units of measure
Units of Measure
  • Manure production
    • lbs/day/1000 lbs live weight
    • lbs/animal/day
    • Gallons or ft3/day/1000 lb live weight
nutrients in manure
Nutrients in Manure

Major Nutrients (N, P, and K)

  • Presented in terms of nutrient itself (N, P, K)
  • Commercial Fertilizer expressed as
    • Nitrogen – N
    • Phosphorus - P205
    • Potassium - K2O
  • Must convert!!!

Other Nutrients

  • Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Na, Cl
example manure production
Example: Manure Production

For A dairy farm milking 100 cows a day, determine:

  • Mass of manure produced per day
  • Volume of manure per day
  • Pounds of N, P, and K produced per day
  • Storage capacity required on the farm if the manure is to be stored for three months
generally classified as liquid slurry solid depending upon solids content

Manure/Waste Classification

Generally classified as liquid, slurry, solid depending upon solids content
  • Liquid< 5% solids
  • Slurry 5-20% solids
  • Solid >20% solids

Solids content determines how manure or waste is handled

manure waste handling system
Manure/Waste Handling System


  • Housing facility
  • Collection and transfer
  • Storage/Treatment
  • Transport
  • Utilization
manure waste handling systems
Manure/Waste Handling Systems
  • All Systems start with production by animals
  • All systems end with utilization
    • Common - land application as a fertilizer for crop production
  • No System is best
solid semi solid systems
Solid/Semi Solid Systems
  • System of choice for most poultry operations
  • Material from dairies often not “dry” enough to stack well
  • Separated solids but separating liquids and solids mean two sets of manure handling equipment
  • Separate runoff/leachate holding facilities may be required

Deep - pack

  • Sometimes used for swine, beef, and dairy production
  • Results in semi-composted solid waste
liquid systems
Liquid Systems
  • Common in swine and dairy production
  • Allows greater automation of manure collection with flush systems
components of liquid systems
Components of Liquid Systems
  • Collection
    • Flush (gutter or slotted floor)
    • Scrape (tractor or cable)
  • Transfer
    • Conveyor - auger
    • Pump
    • Gravity channel, pipes
  • Storage
    • Tanks – steel or concrete
    • Earthen basin or lagoon
  • Transport
    • Tank wagon
    • Irrigation system
manure treatment
Manure Treatment


  • Stabilize manure
  • Odor reduction
  • Nutrient management
  • Energy recovery
  • Pathogen reduction
  • Reduce gaseous emissions
some manure treatment options











Some Manure Treatment Options
manure treatment systems principles
Manure Treatment Systems - Principles
  • Biological processes
    • Anaerobic (w/out oxygen)
    • Aerobic (with oxygen)
  • Chemical Treatment
  • Physical processes e.g. solids separation
example on farm swine manure treatment system
Example: On-Farm Swine Manure Treatment System

Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

liquid solid separator with polymer pam
Liquid-Solid Separator with Polymer (PAM)

Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

nitrification for ammonia removal



Nitrification for Ammonia Removal

Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

phosphorus separation module
Phosphorus Separation Module

Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.

anaerobic lagoon was transformed into aerobic pond
Anaerobic Lagoon was Transformed into “Aerobic” Pond



Sept. 2002

Sept. 2003

Source: Vanotti, USDA-ARS , SC.


Covered In-Ground Anaerobic Digester

Source: Cheng, NC State Univ.


Tomato Production in Greenhouse using treated swine lagoon liquid

Nitrification Biofilters

Source: Cheng, NC State Univ.

some questions to ask when selecting a treatment system
Some Questions to ask when Selecting a Treatment System
  • What happens to nutrients
  • How do products of the treatment system impact the environment, regulations
  • Pathogen reduction
  • Energy generated and/or consumed by system
  • Pretreatment necessary?
  • Operation and maintenance
  • Installed anywhere?
  • $$$$ COST $$$$
  • energy (methane generation)
  • bedding (separated solids)
  • mulch
  • organic matter
  • plant nutrients
testing manure waste
Testing Manure/Waste
  • Test manure at least once a year
  • Actual data much better than tabulated
  • Variation due to diet, animal age, handling, storage, etc
sampling manure
Sampling Manure
  • Required at least annually
  • Must be “representative”
  • Actual samples much more reliable than tabulated values
representative sampling from liquid storage
Representative Sampling from Liquid Storage
  • Best time to sample is just before land application
  • Agitation critical—nitrogen and potassium can be characterized by sampling a vertical profile, but phosphorus can not.
  • Continuous agitation needed to assure phosphorus remains in solution
sampling a lagoon
Sampling a lagoon
  • Want to sample vertical profile - don’t need to sample sludge layer, unless the sludge is to be removed or lagoon is being closed
  • Use a tube to sample entire profile or
  • Sample at 5 or 6 discrete locations and composite sample
sampling solid semi solid manure
Sampling Solid/Semi-solid Manure
  • Use a 3’ long piece of metal tubing with handles attached to get sampler into pile
  • Pull samples from 10 to 15 locations
  • Composite samples, mix well
shipping samples
Shipping Samples
  • Freeze if they can’t be shipped immediately
  • For liquids, fill a plastic quart container with screw-on lid about 2/3 full
  • For solids, place in gallon-sized plastic bag, twist and tie tightly
  • Label all samples with name, sample number, location and test date
safety considerations
Safety Considerations
  • Dangerous gases (e.g. Hydrogen Sulfide) are produced when an anaerobic manures are agitated. If possible remove animals from building. If not, ventilate at highest rate.
  • Methane gas is a concern due to explosive nature especially in confined spaces