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Topic 5: Imperialism in India

Topic 5: Imperialism in India

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Topic 5: Imperialism in India

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  1. Topic 5: Imperialism in India

  2. European Interests in India • 1600’s-British East India Company (BEIC) set up trading posts • Mughal Dynasty kept Europeans traders in control until it started to collapse in 1707 • Dynasty collapsed when dozens of small states separated from Mughal control • 1757-Robert Clive (leader of British East India Company troops) was victorious over Indian troops • From 1757-1858, BEIC was the leading political power in India

  3. Queen Victoria of England taking India into the British Empire (1858)

  4. British East India Company • At first, BEIC was regulated and controlled by British officials in London • Over time, the BEIC ruled with less and less interference from the British government • The BEIC had its own army led by British officers and Sepoys (Indian Soldiers)

  5. Economic Imperialism • At first the British considered India its most valuable colony-major supplier of raw materials needed to power the Industrial Revolution- “Jewel in the Crown” • India’s large population (300 million) was also a market to sell the finished products to • The British set restrictions on the Indian economy to ensure that British products were bought and sold (this put many Indian industries out of business) • British improved India’s infrastructure (railroads and such) to aid in the transportation of raw materials and finished products • Major crops included: tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, jute, and opium (Jewel in the Crown 3:47)

  6. Sepoy Mutiny (Sepoy Mutiny 4:06) • Sepoys-Indian soldiers • In 1857 gossip spread among the Sepoys that their riffle cartridges were greased with beef and pork fat • Muslims do not eat pork and Hindus do not consume beef (as the cow is considered sacred) • Outraged; 85 of the 90 Sepoys refused to accept the cartridges • Those who disobeyed were jailed (British mishandled the situation) • The next day, May 10, 1857, the Sepoys rebelled and marched on the city of Delhi and captured it. The rebellion spread to northern and central India. • It took more than a year for the East India Company to regain control of the country. • Indians could not defeat the British because due to weak leadership and conflicts between the Hindus and Muslims

  7. Sepoy Mutiny

  8. Capturing of Delhi by Indians

  9. Raj • Considered a turning point in British rule of India • In 1858 The British government took direct control of India rule under the British crown during the reign of Queen Victoria (known as the Raj) • A British cabinet minister directed policy in London and a British governor-general (later called a viceroy) carried out the government’s policies • The British promised that Indian states that were free would remain so, however unofficially Britian took more control away from the governing princes

  10. Nationalism in India • In the early 1800s some Indians began to demand more modernization, thus a movement away from traditional Indian practices began • Nationalist feelings began to emerge as many Indians hated being treated like second-class citizens in their own land • Two nationalist groups were formed: the Indian National Congress (1885) and the Muslim League (1906) • At first both groups focused on improving conditions for Indians, however by the early 1900s they were calling for self-government

  11. Impact of Colonialism Positive Negative • Massive railroad system helped establish modern economy and untied the country • Infrastructure modernized: roads, bridges, damns, canals, & telegraph and telephone lines • Sanitation & public health improved • Schools & colleges were founded & literacy increased • British put an end to local warfare among competing groups • British restricted Indian-owned industries • Loss of self-sufficient villages due to cash crop dependency • Decreased food production led to famines • Increased presence of missionaries and decline of Indian traditional life