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India. India. What I know About India. What I Want to Learn About India. What I Learned About India. India. Geography. TTYN : How does geography help shape civilizations?. Small Group Activity

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  1. India

  2. India What I know About India What I Want to Learn About India What I Learned About India

  3. India Geography TTYN:How does geography help shape civilizations? • Small Group Activity • Work cooperatively, identify key geographical locations on the map located in your notes packet. Refer to your textbook. • Physical • Political

  4. India Geography

  5. India Geography

  6. India

  7. India Geography

  8. India Geography Well-watered northern plains, the dry Deccan plateau, and the coastal plains on either side of the Deccan The Indian subcontinent is divided into three major zones

  9. India Geography • India is considered a “subcontinent” because of its size. • It is a part of Asia. In the north are high mountains, the Himalayas and Hindu Kush. In the center - the Deccan Plateau.

  10. India Geography • Northern plain lies south of the mountain • Fertile land • Receives water from the Indus, Ganges, and the Brahmaputra Rivers

  11. India Geography • The Deccan lacks water resources • Much of the region is arid, unproductive, and sparsely populated • Coastal plains, similar to the northern plain, receive a sufficient amount of water, plus have the added benefit of the coast for trade and fishing. TTYN: Identify different weather events that could have an affect on a people and a nation

  12. India What is the message within this poem? “The summer sun, who robbed the pleasant nights. And plundered all the water of the rivers. And burned the earth, and scorched the forest-trees Is now hiding; and the rain-clouds, Spread thick across the sky to track him down. Hunt for the criminal with lightning flashes.” Geography Small Group Activity

  13. India Geography • Monsoon – a seasonal wind • Winter – blows from the NE, bringing with it hot, dry air that withers crops • May-June – the wet summer monsoon blows from the SW. Packed with moisture from the Indian Ocean. • The monsoon has shaped Indian life. • Rain for cops; If later, famine and starvation may occur

  14. India Geography Of India

  15. India The First Indian Civilization: Indus Valley Civilization • Emerged in the Indus River Valley (present-day Pakistan) • 2500 B.C.E. • After 1,000 years of prosperity, it vanished without a trace • Only in this century have archeologists unearthed the remains of the Indus River Valley • No names of kings, tax records, literature, or accounts of famous victories.

  16. India

  17. India The First Indian Civilization: Indus Valley Civilization • The people of the Indus Valley were mostly peaceful farmers. • Built large cities with ordered streets and bricks made all the same size. • This indicates they had a strong central government. • Had running water and sewer systems. • Built walls around their cities, which indicated that they might have had to defend themselves

  18. India The First Indian Civilization: Indus Valley Civilization • Based on some of the many artifacts uncovered, it is believed that the people of the Indus Valley were polytheistic. • The bull was also apparently worshiped, which scholars believe influenced later Indian beliefs • Led to the veneration or special regard for cattle.

  19. India The First Indian Civilization: Indus Valley Civilization • Decline??? • Ecological disasters?? • Volcanic eruption which blocked the flow of the Indus?? • Earthquake?? • Many scholars speculate that around 1500 B.C.E., nomads (The Aryans) from the north arrived.

  20. India The Vedic Age 1500 B.C.E. – 500 B.C.E. • The Aryans • Built no cities and left no statues • Vedas – collection of prayers, hymn, and other religious teachings

  21. India The Vedic Age 1500 B.C.E. – 500 B.C.E. • What the Vedas tell us: • Aryans were warriors • Fought with chariots, bows and arrows • Valued cattle • Divided people by occupation; three basic groups – Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (warriors), and the Vaisyas (herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants) • Religion – polytheistic – gods or goddesses that embodied the sun, storm, and fire.

  22. The Vedic Age 1500 B.C.E. – 500 B.C.E.

  23. India What I know About India What I Want to Learn About India What I Learned About India

  24. India What’s up next – Religions and Belief Systems Bring your Beliefs Systems Notes Packet to class!!! ***This particular section of our discovery of India will allow you to either confirm, correct, or further your understanding of the Belief Systems that dominate India. Equally important, our time during this section will help prepare you for the unit exam.

  25. Hinduism Timeline Widely considered the world’s oldest religion. Many people suggest that Hinduism in not a religion, much like Christianity or Judaism, but more of a way of life. Hinduism evolved around 1500 BCE Founder None. Hinduism derives from the word "India” and refers to traditions and philosophies that have evolved over thousands of years Geography Sacred Text Vedas and Upinshads

  26. Hinduism Basic Tenants of Hinduism Universal Spirit or Brahman Hindu thinkers came to believe that everything in the universe was part of the unchanging, all-powerful spiritual force called brahman. According to Swami Sivananda, one of the great Yoga masters of the 20th century “Brahman or the Supreme Self is beyond time and space, causation. He is limitless. He is tranquil. He shines with equal effulgence in all bodies. He cannot be any particular thing. He is Chaitanya or pure consciousness. He is Vastu, Atman or Brahman or the Supreme Self is the hidden treasure. It is the jewel of jewels. It is gem of gems. It is the imperishable, inexhaustible supreme wealth, which no dacoit can rob. It is Chintamani of Chintamanis that will give man whatever he wishes.” In other words, brahman is too complex an idea for most people to comprehend, so they worships gods that give a concrete form to brahman.

  27. Hinduism Basic Tenants of Hinduism To Hindus, every person has an essential self, or atman. Atman is just another name for brahman. For Hindus, the ultimate goal of existence is to achieve moksha (MAHK SHUH), or union with brahman. To accomplish this – you must free yourself from selfish desires. Because Hindus believe that this goal cannot be completed in just one lifetime, they believe in reincarnation. Thus, through reincarnation, you are able to continue working towards moksha. Karma All actions of a person’s life that affect their next life Dharma Religious and moral duties. These duties vary according to class, occupation, gender, or age. By obeying one’s dharma, a person acquires merit for the next life. Hinduism provides direction to the daily lives of Hindus. It teaches that people should remain in their social group or caste

  28. Hinduism Caste System • Caste System  - rigid class structure based on Hinduism which is found in India. • Believed that if one leads a good life, following good karma and  • dharma, they will be rewarded by being reincarnated as a person belonging to the next highest level in the Caste System. • If one is wicked during their life, they will be demoted, and possibly even removed from the Caste System altogether.

  29. Hinduism Caste System • Outcasts, or Untouchables, are members of Hindu society thought to have been removed from the Caste System, with no hope of returning to it, due to their misdeeds in previous lives. • Work that is deemed unclean for all other Hindus is reserved for these Outcasts.

  30. Central to Hinduism is the belief in reincarnation. Hindus believe that after a person dies, they will be re-born as some other creature or thing. What you are re-born as depends on your “Karma” or the deeds you did in your previous life. If you did good deeds, you will reborn into a higher, better life. If you had bad Karma, you may be re-born as an insect or even a tree. Hinduism

  31. Hinduism Caste System

  32. Hinduism Caste System The caste system is an important part of Hinduism. Caste are social groups into which people are born and out of which they cannot move during a lifetime. In Next Life In This Life If good and obeys caste rules Higher Caste A Person Is born into a caste Lower Caste If bad and breaks caste rules

  33. Hinduism TTYN – complete the graphic organizer with important facts about Hinduism Hinduism Sacred Texts Vedas and Upinshads

  34. Buddhism Timeline Buddhism currently has about 376 million followers and is generally listed as the world's fourth largest religion. Buddhism shares many of the core concepts of Hinduism. Buddha or the “Enlightened One” was born a Hindu in 500 B.C. Founder Siaddhartha Gautama or Buddha Geography Sacred Text Tripitaka or “Three Baskets of Wisdom”

  35. Buddhism Teachings ,Beliefs, and Origins Siddhartha was born into the Brahmin caste, And by all accounts, led a luxurious lifestyle. However, he was troubled by the human misery that he saw around him everyday. While meditating under a sacred tree, he found the answer to his question, and he was thereafter referred to as Buddha. Upon reflection, he deduced that desire was the root cause of all suffering. This idea has been recorded as the Four Noble Truths

  36. Buddhism • Four Noble Truths • Siddhartha's philosophy of the nature of human suffering and its relation to desire is articulated by these four statements: • Life is full of pain and suffering. • Human desire causes this suffering. • By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering. • Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path

  37. Buddhism Eightfold Path The Wheel of Life is one of the most important symbols of Buddhism, as it represents the endless cycle of life through reincarnation and because each of its eight spokes represents one of the teachings of theEightfold Path. Know that suffering is caused by desire. Be selfless and love all life. Do not lie, or speak without cause. Do not kill, steal, or commit other unrighteous acts. Do not do things which promote evil. Take effort to promote righteousness. Be aware of your physical actions, state of mind, and emotions. Learn to meditate.

  38. Buddhism Reincarnation Buddhists believe in an endless cycle of reincarnation, or samsara, which is similar to beliefs of Hinduism. However, Buddhists do not believe that deities are responsible for the phenomenon. In addition, the Caste Systemis rejected by Buddhists who believe instead that one is reincarnated until they can achieve nirvana, best described as spiritual enlightenment. The concept of reincarnation can best be illustrated using an infinity symbol: Nirvana spiritual enlightenment TTYN: What Does Nirvana mean to you?

  39. Buddhism Do Now and “Pair and Share” In complete sentences, describe what Buddha might be suggesting with each of the following quite. 1. “It is better to conquer yourself than to win a thousand battles. Then the victory is yours. It cannot be taken from you, not by angels or by demons, heaven or hell.” 2. “All that man experiences springs out of his thoughts. If his thoughts are good, the words and deeds will also be good. The result of good thoughts, words and deeds will be happiness. This happiness never leaves the person whose thoughts are good. Happiness will always follow him like his shadow that never leaves him.”

  40. Buddhism Do Now and then “Pair and Share” In complete sentences, describe what Buddha might be suggesting with each of the following quote. 3. “Those who attempt to conquer hatred by hatred are like warriors who take weapons to overcome others who bear arms. This does not end hatred, but gives it room to grow. But, ancient wisdom has advocated a different timeless strategy to overcome hatred. This eternal wisdom is to meet hatred with non-hatred. The method of trying to conquer hatred through hatred never succeeds in overcoming hatred. But, the method of overcoming hatred through non-hatred is eternally effective. That is why that method is described as eternal wisdom.”

  41. Buddhism TTYN – complete the graphic organizer with some of the important facts regarding Buddhism Buddhism Founder Siddharth Gautama AKA Buddha

  42. India Small Group Activity Caste System (writing activity): Imagine you have been reincarnated into an ancient Indian caste (Choose one). Write a short essay describing how you feel being born into this caste. Do you think the caste system is fair? Why or why not? Explain your opinion. This letter must be at least two well-organized paragraphs in length and as detailed as possible.

  43. India What I know About India What I Want to Learn About India What I Learned About India

  44. India The Golden Ages

  45. India Empires of India • TTYN – What is an empire? The Maurya Empire 322 B.C.E – 185 B.C.E

  46. India Empires of India The Maurya Empire • Maurya – MOW uhryuh • Founder - Chandragupta Maurya ( First empire/emperor) • Gained control of the subcontinent through conquest and alliance • Area – From the Indus plain and Himalayas to the tip of the peninsula • Divided empire into provinces • Delegated power to governors

  47. India The Maurya Empire • Well-organized bureaucracy • Officials supervised the infrastructure (roads, buildings, harbors) • Officials collected taxes • Managed state-owned factories and shipyards • People justice in royal courts • Secret Police reported on corruption, crime, and dissent • Chandragupta’s rule was effective but hard • Women were trained as warriors

  48. India The Maurya Empire • Asoka, grandson of Chandragupta; the most honored emperor • Mauryan reached its greatest glory • The Two Asoka’s - • Fought a long and bloody war to conquer the Deccan region • Horrified at the slaughter (over 100K) dead – turned his back on further conquests • Converted to Buddhism- rejected violence; rules by a moral code

  49. India The Maurya Empire • “All people are my children, and just as I desire for my children that they should obtain welfare and happiness, both in this world and the next, so do I desire the same for all people” • Took steps to help his “children” • building roads, rest houses for travelers, and hospitals. • Preached tolerance for other religions

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