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Conditional sentences. A clause beginning with si (if) or nisi (if not, unless) is called a conditional clause. A sentence containing a conditional clause is called a conditional sentence. E.g.: Si illud dixisti, erravisti . If you said that, you were wrong.

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A clause beginning with si (if) or nisi (if not, unless) is called a conditional clause. A sentence containing a conditional clause is called a conditional sentence.

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E.g.: Si illud dixisti, erravisti.

If you said that, you were wrong.

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Si filius meus mortuus est, fundum libertis lego.

If my son is dead, I leave the farm to the freedmen.

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Translate the following examples. The conditional clause is underlined.

1. Si Marco credis, insanus es!

2. Si Salvius talia facinoracommisit, puniendus est.

3. Si illum servum magno pretioemisti, venalicius te decepit.

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Some sentences in which the conditional clause refers to the future:

1. Si respexeris, aliquid miri videbis

If you look behind you, you will see something amazing.

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2. Si milites bene pugnabunt, hostes terrebunt.

If the soldiers fight well, they will terrify the enemy.

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Translate these examples of the future tense conditionals:

1. Si pecuniam meam reppereritis, vobis praemium ingens dabo.

2. Si pompam spectabis, delectaberis.

3. Si Virgines Vestales ignem sacrum neglexerint, di populum Romanum punient.

4. Si tu mihi nocueris, ego tibi nocebo.

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Examples of using nisi in conditional clauses: nisi tacueritis, e taberna eiciemini

Unless you shut up, you will be thrown out of the inn.

(or) If you don’t shut up, you will be thrown out of the inn.

Nisi princeps me liberabit, in exilio reliquam vitam manebo.

contrary to fact conditional sentences use the subjunctive
Contrary to fact conditional sentences use the subjunctive.

Si magis esset anus, Martialis eam ducere vellet.

If she were older, Martial would be willing to marry her.

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Si urbanus esses, tamen renidere usque quaque te nollem.

If you were a city-dweller, I still wouldn’t want you to be forever grinning.

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Si essem dives, felix essem.

If I were rich, I would be happy.

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Si essetis divites, essetis felices.

If you all were rich, you all would be happy.

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Si ego essem tu, valde studerem.

If I were you, I would study hard.