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Chapter 7 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 7. Behavior. Toni Gibbs Hannah Snyder Ryan Duffey Christen Wheelus Megan Painter. Operant Conditioning. Operant conditioning focuses on the environmental factors that affect the types of behaviors that people exhibit and to what extent that they will exhibit them in the future.

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Chapter 7

Behavior

Toni Gibbs

Hannah Snyder

Ryan Duffey

Christen Wheelus

Megan Painter

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Operant Conditioning

  • Operant conditioning focuses on the environmental factors that affect the types of behaviors that people exhibit and to what extent that they will exhibit them in the future.
  • B.F. Skinner is responsible for putting together the theory of operant conditioning.
  • The Skinner Box is an invention that was designed by Skinner to show how discrimination of situations can influence behavioral patterns.
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Reinforcement & Punishment

  • Reinforcement is designed to increase desired behaviors, while punishment is designed to decrease undesired behaviors to extinction.
  • Aversive stimuli are used in the process of decreasing behavior like negative reinforcement and punishment.
  • When a previously maladaptive behavior occurs is it called spontaneous recovery. The time between undesired behaviors and recovery should eventually lengthen and the recurring behavior should eventually weaken if reinforcement is working properly.
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Shaping behavior is used for more complex behaviors that require more effort and attention. It’s a gradual process and is very important.

  • There are 4 intermittent schedules of reinforcement: Fixed interval, variable interval, fixed ratio, and variable ratio.
    • Interval involves time, while ratio involves a rate.
  • Behavior modification is when operant conditioning is put into use to modify behaviors.
  • The Premack Principle is also called Grandma’s Rule and is a form of shaping behavior which allows a person to participate in desired activities after they have completed an assigned task.

Shaping Behavior

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Behavior modifications

  • A token economy was first introduced for those who had emotional disturbances and with students in special education classes. A token is rewarded for good behavior and can later be replaced for something that has real value.
  • Contingency contracting is also a form of behavior modification. It is used to strengthen good behaviors by designing a contract between a student and teacher that provides a mutual agreement for both parties.
  • Punishment is the most controversial type of consequence for maladaptive behaviors.
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Token Economy

Contingency Contract

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According to Angela Crossman PHD associate professor of psychology at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York who researched why children lie- Children who start lying at a very young age are often those with higher IQ scores. It may also be linked with good social skills in adolescence. However, you do want to make sure that you teach the young children the difference between the truth and a lie.

Why Kids Lie – Age by Age By: Juliette Guilbert

Hannah

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Toddler age-

Children at the toddler age do not understand what lying is. They may “tell a lie”, however they do not understand what they are doing wrong. According to Elizabeth Berger M.D. child psychiatrist and author of Raising Kids with Character you should try not to argue with your toddler when they lie. If they do something, for example break a vase, you should simply say something about the vase being broken. The toddler is more likely to tell the truth when they do not feel that you are mad.

  • Preschoolers-

Preschoolers “tall tales” can be pure play or wishful thinking. It is not unusual for children of this age to argue that their “tall tale” is the truth. If the “tall tale” is not hurting anyone it is better for you to just leave it alone. Telling tall tells at the preschool age shows that they are developing an active imagination.

Why Kids Lie – Age by Age By: Juliette Guilbert

Hannah

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Why Kids Lie – Age by Age By: Juliette Guilbert

  • School Kids- ages 5-8

At this age children know what a lie is and what it is not. Their ability to tell a white (or prosocial) lie- is a lie that benefits someone else or is told to avoid hurting someone’s feelings. Being able to do this shows that the children are showing social awareness and sensitivity. At this age it is suggested that you talk to the child and try to understand why they told the lie before you punish them for it.

  • Tweens-

At this age children start to keep to themselves more details of their lives. This does not mean that they are sneaking around or lying. However, it does mean that they are growing in their maturity. It also means that they are getting more independent. The more independent that the child gets the more likely he or she will take advantage of pulling one by you. According to Dr. Berger the best solution is to express your displeasure with the lying. Also be sure and be a positive example for the child.

Hannah

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Behavior Management Strategies

 By Mary C. McGrann

  • The beginning of the school year is vitally important to setting standards for behavior for the rest of the school year.
  • What rules a teacher has and how they enforce them early on students is a way students get to know their teachers.
  • Enforcing a socially safe environment helps students grow and learn more effectively as they are able to take educational risks without fear of being bullied or laughed at.
  • A classroom community can be built through having the students work toward a common goal such as a reward. Working together can also help them to encourage the individuals and be more accepting of each other.
  • Words are powerful things and when disciplining students on their behavior teachers must be sure to maintain the students dignity and therefore model respect of others to the students.

Ryan

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Behavior Management Strategies

 By Mary C. McGrann

  • Focusing on students for good behavior rather than harping on bad behavior reinforces the desired behavior.
  • A tool for creating classroom community can also be curriculum, especially through fictional characters sharing experiences with the students and helping them learn to deal with things. The relationship between teacher and family is also very important in understanding the students and working with them in a way that is best for them.
  • Taking care to follow these methods may help exponentially in student behavior development within the classroom.

Ryan

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This article focuses on how to change and prevent violent behavior in the classroom. The first section gives a scenario about a little boy named Andy who is in first grade. His teacher, Ms. Smith, is trying to transition the students from reading to art but when she asks Andy to put away his reading materials and line up Andy breaks out into aggressive behavior. He slings his books across the room, swears loudly, and begins to kick and punch the furniture around him. The article goes on to say children break out into this explosive behavior because they do not like transitions or unexpected change.

Defusing Violent Behavior in Young Children: An Ounce of Prevention

By Diane Smallwood

Megan

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Defusing Violent Behavior in Young Children: An Ounce of Prevention

By Diane Smallwood

The article gives eight prevention methods to help prevent this behavior in the classroom.

  • Facilitate Prevention and Problem Solving.
  • Create a positive framework for changing behavior.
  • Identifying the underlying impetus of the behavior.
  • Determine the circumstances that trigger outbursts.
  • Stay in front of the meltdown.
  • Identifying the precursor behaviors.
  • Show the child that you are an advocate for his success.
  • Engage parents as partners.

Megan

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Defusing Violent Behavior in Young Children: An Ounce of Prevention

By Diane Smallwood

I think this article brings up some very interesting points when it comes to disciplining behavior but from my experience with a violent student I know that some things you just can’t prevent. There are moments in our classroom when we think that our student is having a wonderful day and then within seconds that child is having a meltdown and it takes several minutes or even hours to calm him down. The slightest thing can trigger these meltdowns and in my opinion it is not the job of the teacher to cater to these students just so that they don’t have a meltdown. I feel as if these students need to be in classrooms of their own because the meltdowns not only take time away from their own instructional time but also those of their classmates. Overall, I do agree with some of the strategies and I will definitely look back on these if I ever have a problem child but certain ones I don’t feel will be very effective in the classroom, especially if you don’t have the help of your colleagues.

Megan

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Disciplining Students with Disabilities

Kevin P. Dwyer

  • In this article, the topic of disciplining children with disabilities is discussed and is supported by many examples and factual strategies that align with the standards set by IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). I really have nothing to argue against within the article, but I will share what I think to be the most important statements about disciplining disruptive and dangerous behaviors exhibited by those who have disabilities.

Toni

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Disciplining Students with Disabilities

Kevin P. Dwyer

  • To begin with I think it is important to emphasize that before any disciplinary action should take place, all teachers need to seek to discover if the maladaptive behavior that is being manifested is because and/or due to the child’s disability alone. Some students act out and misbehave because of something that they cannot help and it is important that teachers are informed of the different ways that students with disabilities can behave. For example, a child who has autism may scream out because of inability to control his or her actions. It is as if the screaming is an involuntary response to some form of stimuli within the student’s mind.

Toni

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Disciplining Students with Disabilities

Kevin P. Dwyer

  • Next, I want to make mention of the importance of IEPs. An IEP (Individual Education Plan) is a great way to have something to study and use to make sure that all students learn appropriate behaviors the way that they can understand. All students learn things differently and respond to different techniques so it is important that teachers use different types of reinforcement for each student’s individual needs. All students need to learn how to behave appropriately regardless if they have a disability or not. The important thing to remember is that it may take different approaches to shape and modify inappropriate behaviors with children who have disabilities.

Toni

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Disciplining Students with Disabilities

Kevin P. Dwyer

  • The final point of recognition is that teachers and administrators should be aware of the desires of the parents of all students. Parents have the right to appeal actions that are carried out by teachers, so it each teacher’s job to make sure that all decisions regarding disciplining students who have disabilities should be aligned with parental wishes. Some behaviors may persist to the level of being dangerous, and a child may need to be moved to a more restrictive and safer environment that still caters to the needs of the child in the most effective way, but this should be addressed to the parents prior to any action taking place.

Toni