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Living Things

Living Things. Chapter 2. What is Life?. Characteristics of living things _____________ _______________ ______________ ________________________ ________________ ___________. Cells. Contain Chemicals. Use Energy. Respond to their Surroundings. Grow and develop. Reproduce.

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Living Things

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  1. Living Things Chapter 2

  2. What is Life? • Characteristics of living things • _____________ • _______________ • ______________ • ________________________ • ________________ • ___________ Cells Contain Chemicals Use Energy Respond to their Surroundings Grow and develop Reproduce

  3. Cellular Organization • Cells - basic unit of structure and function in an organism – microscopic Single celled (bacteria) Many cells that are specialized to do certain tasks Example: muscle and nerve cells perform certain tasks in the body to help us move and feel. • Unicellular - • Multicellular-

  4. Chemicals of life • Most abundant chemical in cells is__________ • ____________ are a cell’s main energy source • _______________ are the building blocks of cells. • ___________carry the genetic material, chemical instructions that direct the cell’s activities. water. Carbohydrates Proteins and Lipids Nucleic Acids

  5. Energy Use and Response • All cells use ___________to do work such as repair injuries and move chemicals throughout the body • _____________________ – reactions to changes in the environment. Example: plant bends toward the light, remove hand from a hot stove. • ________- change in an organisms surroundings that causes a reaction • ___________- an action or change in behavior Energy Response to Surroundings Stimulus Response

  6. Growth, Development, and Reproduction • ______-the process of becoming larger. • ____________- process of change that occurs to make organisms more complex. • _________________- produce offspring that are similar to the parents – not exact! • _________________- living things cannot arise from non-living things through ___________________ - a mistaken idea that living things can arise from non-living things Growth Development Reproduction Life Comes From Life Spontaneous generation

  7. Redi Redi’s Experiment disprove • ____________________-helped to _________ spontaneous generation. • Controlled experiment to show that flies do not arise from decaying meat • _____________________(Independent Variable) was whether or not the jars were covered to allow the flies to get to the meat inside. • Flies were able to enter the uncovered jars and lay eggs. • The eggs hatched into maggots which developed into flies. • No flies were able to enter the covered jar – no maggots were formed • ____________ - rotting meat does not produce flies! Manipulated Variable Conclusion

  8. Pasteur Louis Pasteur • ___________-credited with disproving the theory of spontaneous generation through his experiment with bacteria and broth. • ______________________- 1. Clear broth into two flasks with curved necks. The necks let oxygen into the broth but were to keep bacteria out. • Boiled broth in one flask but not the other • Unboiled broth became cloudy showing that new bacteria were growing . Boiled broth remained clear. • _________________– new bacteria only arise from living bacteria that were already present in the unboiled broth. Broth Experiment Conclusion

  9. Needs of Living Things • __________ - all living things need water to survive. Water is used for breaking down food, growth, transport of nutrients, and reproduction. • ____-source of energy to live. • ________________________ – make their own food. Example: plants capture suns energy and make their own food – this process is called ________________. • __________________________ – obtain energy by feeding on others. Example: animals, mushrooms, and slime molds. Water Food Autotrophs (self-feeder) Photosynthesis Heterotrophs (other-feeder)

  10. Needs of Living Things Continued Living Space • ______________-a place to get food, water, and find shelter. The surroundings must provide what the organism needs to live, grow, and reproduce. This sometimes leads to ___________ because space is limited on Earth and there are many living things competing for the same space. • ___________________________ -conditions inside of an organisms body must remain stable even when conditions outside of the body change dramatically. -___________________-maintenance of stable internal conditions competition Stable internal Living Conditions Homeostasis

  11. Microscope Lab

  12. Please Pass the Bread Lab • What factors are necessary for bread molds to grow? • Predict what factors might affect the growth of bread mold • Conduct the experiment – what are the variables? • Collect data through observations recorded on a data table • Analyze and conclude the results • Communicate through a written lab report • Design another experiment based on results

  13. Chapter 2-2: Classifying Organisms I. Why Do Scientists Classify? A. Classification is the process B. Biologists use classification C. The scientific study 1. Taxonomy is useful Of grouping things based on their similarities To organize living things into groups so that organisms are easier to study Of how living things are classified is called taxonomy Because once an organism is classified, a scientist knows a lot about the organism

  14. II. The Naming System of Linnaeus Naming organisms A. Taxonomy also involves B. In 1750, Carolus Linnaeus devised a system C. Linnaeus placed organisms D. Linnaeus gave each organism E. This naming system Linnaeus used Of naming organisms that is still used today Into groups based on observable features A unique, two part system Is called binomial nomenclature

  15. F. Genus and Species In an organisms scientific name is its genus 1. The first word 2. A genus is a 3. A species is a G. Using Binomial Nomenclature 1. A complete scientific name 2. Only the first letter 3. Scientific names contain Classification grouping that contain similar, closely related organisms Group of similar organisms that can mate with each other Is written in italics Of the first word is capitalized Latin Words

  16. III. Levels of Classification A. Today’s classification system B. the Major Levels of Classification 1. First, an organism which in turn is divided 2. The more classification levels Uses a series of many levels to classify organisms Is placed in a broad group Into more specific groups That two organisms share, the more that they have in common

  17. 3. Eight levels of Classification Highest level of organization a. Domain is the b. Within a domain, c. Within kingdoms, d. Within phyla e. Within classes f. Within orders g. Each family contains h. Each genus contains There are kingdoms There are phyla Are classes Are orders Are families One or more genera One or more species

  18. IV. Domains and Kingdoms Three domain system of classification is commonly used A. Today, a B. The three domains are 1. __________________________ 2. ___________________________ 3. ___________________________ C. Organisms are placed _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Into domains and kingdoms based on their cell type, their ability to make food, and the number of cells in their bodies

  19. Are all around you D. Bacteria 1. Members of the domain Bacteria are _______________________________________________________ 2. Prokaryotes are _______________________________________________________ a. A nucleus is a ______________________________________________________ the chemical instructions that _______________________________________________________ E. Archaea 1. Archaea can be found ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Organisms whose cells lack a nucleus Dense area within the cell that contains nucleic acids Direct the cell’s activities In some of the most extreme environments on Earth, including: hot springs, very salty water, swamps, and the intestines of cows

  20. Unicellular prokaryotes • 1. Archaea are _______________________________________________________ • 2. Archaea are classified in their own domain, however, because ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • V. Domain Eukarya • A. Organisms in this domain are _____________________ - organisms with cells that _______________________________________________________ • B. Scientists classify organisms _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Their structure and chemical makeup differ from that of bacteria eukaryotes contain nuclei In domain Eukarya into one of four kingdoms: protists, fungi, plants, or animals

  21. C. Protists 1. A protist is any ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ a. Some protists are ______________________, while other protists are__________________________________________ b. Most protists are ___________________, but some ... are large___________________________________ Eukaryotic organism that cannot be classified as a plant, animal, or fungus Autotrophs (self-feeders) Heterotrophs (“other feeders) Unicellular Multicellular organisms

  22. Multicellular eukaryotes D. Fungi 1. Most fungi are _______________________________________________________ 2. A few ... are _______________________________________________________ 3. All fungi are _______________________________________________________ 4. Most fungi feed by ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ E. Plants 1. Plants are all _____________________________ and most live on _______________________________________________________ 2. Plants are ___________________ that make their own _________ 3. Plants provide ___________ for ____________________________ Unicellular eukaryotes Are heterotrophs (other feeders) Absorbing nutrients from dead or decaying matter Multicellular eukaryotes land autotrophs food food most heterotrophs on land

  23. F. Animals 1. All animals are __________________________________________________________________________________ 2. In addition, all animals are ______________________________________ Multicellular eukaryotes Heterotrophs

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