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Living things. Charactertistics of living things. They all perform the three vital functions ( reproduction , nutrition and interaction ) They all are made up of cells . They all are composed by similar substances. The three vital functions.
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Charactertistics of living things • Theyallperformthethree vital functions(reproduction, nutrition and interaction) • Theyall are made up of cells. • Theyall are composedbysimilar substances
Thethree vital functions • Nutrition: itisthefunctionbywich living beingsobteinmatter and energy. • Organisms can performnutrition in differentways: • Heterotrophicnutrition: living beingsobteintheirfoodfromother living beings. Animals, Fungi, someProtoktists. • Autotrophicnutrition: Organismsobteinthefoodfrominorganicsubstances, CO2 fromthe air, mineralsfromthesoil and waterusingtheenergy of theSun. Plants, some Bacteria and someProtoktists.
Thethree vital functions • Interaction: Whitthisfunction, organismsobtaininformationabouttheenvironment and reactbyproducing a response. • Living beingsreactstostimulilike: light, sound, pressure, temperature, humidity, otherorganisms. Responses: movement, production of chemicalsubstances, etc.
Thethree vital functions • Reproduction: • Thisfunctionsallows living beingsto produce new individuals. • Types: • Asexual: theorganism produces copies of itself. • Sexual: Twoparents are neededto produce descendentsthat share thegeneticcharacteristics of them. Animals lay eggsorgivebirthtoliveyoung, plants produce seeds, bacteria divide intotwo copies.
What are living thingsmade up of? • All living things are made up of chemicalsubstance´. Themostcommonelements in living matter are: C, H, O, N , P and S. Combinations of these elementes formmoleculescalledbiomolecules. • Organicbiomolecules • Inorganicbiomolecules
Biomolecules Inorganic (do notcontainCarbon) Organic: containCarbon • Water (H2O): chemicalreactions, ittransportssubstances. • Mineral salts:makestructures, balance internalfluids • Carbohydrates (energy and structure) • Lipids(energy and structure) • Proteins(structures, tofight deseases, totransport O) • Nucleicacids(tocarrygenetic material)
Cells (CELL THEORY) • Cells are thesmallestunitof life. (functional and structural) • All living things are made up of oneor more cells. • Cellscarryoutthe 3 vital functions. • Allcells come fromothercells.
BASIC TYPES OF CELLS PROKARYOTIC EUKARYOTIC
Prokaryoticcells • Theyhave no nucleus. Genetic material isdispersedthroughoutthecytoplasm. Theydon’thaveorganelles. • Bacteria are made up of prokaryoticcells.
Eukaryoticcells • Tfromtheyhave a nucleusthatconteinthegenetic material and it’sseparatedfromthecytoplasmby a membrane. • Theycontainorganelles (mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplasts,…) • Algae, Protozoa, Fungi, Plants and Animalshaveeukaryoticcells.
Eukarioticcells Animal cell Plantcell
Structure of a eukaryoticcell • Cellmembrane: controlswhatpasses in and out • Nucleus: containsgenetic material • Cytoplasm: containstheorganelles and holdsthem • Mitochondrium: obteinsenergyfromnutrientsbycellrespiration • Vacuoles: Storesubstances, mainlywater • Cellwall: thick and rigiditmanteinstheshape • Chloroplasts: containchlorophyllwich absorbes theSun’senergyto produce glucoseduringphotosynthesis.
Classification of living things • Attendingtothenumber of cells: • Unicellularorganisms: haveonlyonecell. Theysometimesformcolonies. • Multicellularorganisms: Theyhavemanydifferentcells. Cells are organised in levels. Thecellsworktogethertocarryoutthe vital functions.
Levels • Cells: specialised, theyhavespecificfunctions (and shape) • Tissues: groups of cellswiththesamefunction and origin and sometimesstructure. • Organs: groups of tissueswichacttogether. • Systems: groups of organs.
TheKingdoms • Monera- Bacteria and Cyanobacteria (Prokaryotic)- Unicellular –Autotrophicorheterotrophic. • Protoctist – Protozoa and Algae -Unicelullar and multicellular- No tissues – Autotrophic and heterotrophic • Fungi: Yeasts, Moulds, Mushrooms – unicellular and multicellular –No tissues –heterotrophic • Plant. Mosses, Ferns, Floweringplants – multicellular – tissues – autotrophic • Animals: vertebrate and invertebrates- multicellular –tissues - heterotrophic
Classification • Kingdom • Phyllum (itmayhave sub phyllum) • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species (itmayhavesubspecies)
Whatis a species? • Itis a set of living beingswhich are physically similar, they reproduce and havefertiledescendents. • Humanbeing: Homo sapiens • Wolf: Canis lupus • Dog: Canisfamiliaris • Donkeys: Equusasinus • Horse: Equuscaballus