Organic Chemicals • Word Bank • Carbon • Molecules • 4 covalent bonds • Straight chains • Branched chains • Rings • Living things Molecules found in Living things That contain the element Can form up to 4 covalent bonds Can carbon FORM CHAINS With different shapes such as RING BRANCHED STRAIGHT
Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation Reaction) Hydrolysis Is how larger molecules are Is how larger molecules are • Removing water • Polymers • Monomers • Adding water • Built up • Broken down • Starch glucose+ glucose+ glucose • Glucose + fructose sucrose. BUILT UP BROKEN DOWN by by REMOVING WATER ADDING WATER So bonds can be made between So bonds in MONOMERS POLYMERS Are broken down into To build up POLYMERS MONOMERS for example For example GLU + FRU SUCROSE STARCH GLU + GLU+..
Carbohydrates Foods Contains the elements Used for SHORT-TERM ENERGY STORAGE, STRUCTURE IN PLANTS C H O BREAD, GRAINS, FRUITS/VEGGIES, SUGAR At a ratio of Different levels of complexity 1:2:1 Means 1 sugar Means 2 sugars Means many sugar MONOSACCHARIDE DISACCHARIDE POLYSACCHARIDE examples examples examples FRUCTOSE GLUCOSE SUCROSE LACTOSE GALACTOSE CELLULOSE STARCH GLYCOGEN Found in plants for Found in plants for Found in animals for CELL WALL STRUCTURE LONGER TERM ENERGY LONGER-TERM ENERGY
Are used for foods Lipids 1. OILS 2. LARD 3.DRESSINGS 1. LONG TERM ENERGY STORAGE 2. INSULATION 3. CELL MEMBRANE COMPONENT 4. PROTECTION 5. CHEMICAL SIGNALS All lipids are Contain the elements HYDROPHOBIC (Which means they do not mix with water) C H O 3 groups or classes of lipids are FATS WAXES STEROIDS Made of have 4 fused rings and makes up Used for 3 FATTY ACID CHAINS 1 GLYCEROLv and WATERPROOFING PROTECTION HORMONESv Which can be SATURATED Examples v UNSATURATED Examples CHOLESTEROL Liquid at room temp and contains Solid at room temp, and contains Component of TESTOSTERONE D.H.E.A. 1 OR MORE DOUBLE BONDS CELL MEMBRANES NO DOUBLE BONDSv can also be used to make If there is too much it can clog ESTROGEN OTHER STEROIDS ARTERIES
Foods Shape of protein determines Proteins 1. STEAK 2. SOYBEANS 3. NUTS/DAIRY FUNCTION Used for Contains the elements 1. BUILDING STRUCTURES 2. IMMUNE SYSTEM 3. CATALYZE CHEM. REACTIONS (ENZYMES!) 4. CHEMICAL SIGNALS- HORMONES 5. HEMOGLOBIN- CARRIES OXYGEN When the shape changes it is called Made up of C H O N DENATURATION AMINO ACIDS Which can be caused by Which have the following chemical structure 1. pH 2. TEMPERATURE Organized into 4 levels of structure Build up by forming PEPTIDE BONDS 1° ORDER OF A.A.s To make polypeptides which can then form The “R” group is the variable side group 2° BEND & TWIST PROTEINS 20 COMMON AMINO ACIDS 3° FOLD ONTO ITSELF 4° 2+ PROTEINS FOLDED TOGETHER
Test for Organic Molecules Use indicators To Test for PROTEINS CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS Mixed with Mixed with Mixed with ETHANOL WATER SIMPLE CARBS COMPLEX CARBS BIURET On paper will Mixed with Mixed with Positive results Negative results BENEDICT’S IODINE DISSOLVES STAIN Negative results FLOATS PURPLE + Positive results BLUE ORANGE BOIL DK. BROWN Negative results Positive results ORANGE BLUE