Part 1 buddhism part 2 hinduism theme how religions adapt and change
Download
1 / 47

Part 1: Buddhism Part 2: Hinduism Theme: How religions adapt and change - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 254 Views
  • Uploaded on

Part 1: Buddhism Part 2: Hinduism Theme: How religions adapt and change. Lesson 13. Part 1: Buddhism . Lesson 13. Early Buddhism in India. Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (born about 563 B.C.)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Part 1: Buddhism Part 2: Hinduism Theme: How religions adapt and change' - lavender


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Part 1 buddhism part 2 hinduism theme how religions adapt and change l.jpg

Part 1: Buddhism Part 2: HinduismTheme: How religions adapt and change

Lesson 13



Early buddhism in india l.jpg
Early Buddhism in India

  • Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (born about 563 B.C.)

  • According to legend, Gautama was raised in a pampered lifestyle but then he encountered an old man, a sick man, a corpse, and a monk

    • Gautama was impressed by the monk and himself determined to take up an ascetic, wandering life to help him understand the phenomenon of suffering


Siddhartha gautama l.jpg
Siddhartha Gautama

  • About 534 B. C., Gautama left his family to take up the existence of a holy man

  • Intense meditation and extreme asceticism did not enlighten him sufficiently

  • One day he resolved to sit under a large bo tree until he understood the problem of suffering

  • For 49 days he withstood various temptations and threats from demons and finally received enlightenment

    • Thus Gautama became the Buddha– “the enlightened one”

The Buddha by Odilon Redon


Buddhist doctrine l.jpg
Buddhist Doctrine

  • Buddha announced his doctrine publicly at the Deer Park of Sarnath in 528 B.C.

  • Delivered the “Turning of the Wheel of Law” sermon which marked the beginning of Buddha’s quest to promulgate the law of righteousness

Dhamekha Stupa is believed to mark the place of Buddha’s first sermon


Four noble truths l.jpg
Four Noble Truths

  • All life involves suffering

  • Desire is the cause of suffering

  • Elimination of desire brings an end to suffering

  • A disciplined life in accordance with the Noble Eightfold Path brings the elimination of desire


Noble eightfold path l.jpg

Lead a balanced and moderate life

Reject both the devotion to luxury often found in human society and the regimes of extreme asceticism favored by hermits

Right belief

Right resolve

Right speech

Right behavior

Right occupation

Right effort

Right contemplation

Right meditation

Noble Eightfold Path


Dharma l.jpg
Dharma

  • Taken together, the teachings of the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path constitute dharma, the basic doctrine shared by all Buddhists

6th Century Buddha sitting on a lotus blossom which symbolizes purity and strength because it is able to thrive and grow even in murky water


The middle path or moderate way l.jpg
The Middle Path or Moderate Way

  • Avoid extremes– either an overt pursuit of passionate worldly desire or extreme asceticism

  • Live a moderate lifestyle characterized by quiet contemplation, thoughtful reflection, and disciplined self-control

    • Reduces desire for material goods and other worldly attractions

    • Eventually results in detachment from the world itself


Nirvana l.jpg
Nirvana

  • Living this lifestyle will lead to personal salvation– escape from the cycle of incarnation and the attainment of nirvana

    • Nirvana is the state of perfect spiritual independence

The Wheel of Dharma symbolizes samsara, the continuous cycle of birth, life, and death. One is liberated from this endless cycle of rebirth when nirvana is achieved.


Buddhism s popularity in india l.jpg
Buddhism’s Popularity in India

  • Did not recognize social distinctions based on caste

    • Appealed strongly to members of lower castes

  • Did not demand rigorous asceticism

  • Popular with merchants who used Buddhist monasteries as inns

  • Taught in vernacular language to reach a popular audience

  • Holy sites and shrines facilitated pilgrimages


Buddhist organization l.jpg
Buddhist Organization

  • Organization proved efficient in spreading Buddhism and winning converts

    • Most highly motivated converts joined monastic communities

    • Pious lay supporters provided the monasteries with land, buildings, finances, and materials

    • The monks spent much of their time preaching


Monasteries l.jpg
Monasteries

  • Early Indian education was informal, mostly involving just a sage and his students

  • Buddhists organized monasteries and began offering regular instruction and established educational institutions

  • Most famous monastery was at Nalanda

Ruins of monastery at Nalanda


Developments within buddhism l.jpg
Developments within Buddhism

  • Between the 3rd Century B.C. and the 1st Century A.D., three new developments in Buddhist thought and practice reduced obligations of believers, opened new avenues to salvation, and brought explosive popularity to the faith

    • Nature of Buddha

    • Notion of boddhisatva

    • Appeal to the wealthy


Nature of buddha l.jpg
Nature of Buddha

  • Buddha had not considered himself divine, but some of his followers began to worship him as a god

  • This gave Buddhism a devotional focus that helped converts channel their spiritual energies and identify more closely with the faith


Boddhisatvas l.jpg
Boddhisatvas

  • Boddhisatvas (“an enlightened being”) were individuals who had reached spiritual perfection and merited the reward of nirvana, but intentionally delayed their entry in order to help others who were still struggling

    • Served as a source of inspiration and examples of spiritual excellence


Appeal to the wealthy l.jpg
Appeal to the Wealthy

  • Monasteries began to accept gifts from wealthy individuals and consider them acts of generosity that merited salvation

  • Now wealthy individuals could enjoy the comforts of the world and still ensure their salvation


Mahayana buddhism l.jpg
Mahayana Buddhism

  • These innovations opened the way for larger numbers of people so the faith was called Mahayana (“the greater vehicle” which could carry people to salvation)

  • The old doctrine became known as Hinayana (“the lesser vehicle”)

  • Mahayana Buddhism spread rapidly throughout India, largely because of educational institutions that promoted the faith


Establishment of buddhism in china l.jpg
Establishment of Buddhism in China

  • Buddhist merchants visited China as early as the 2nd Century B.C. but made little headway against Confucianism

  • With the demise of the Han Dynasty, Confucianism suffered a loss of credibility

    • The purpose of Confucianism was to maintain public order and provide honest, effective government

    • In the age of warlords and nomadic invasions, Confucianism appeared to have failed


Establishment of buddhism l.jpg
Establishment of Buddhism

  • Originally Buddhism took root in the oases along the trade routes

  • By the 4th Century A.D., a sizeable Buddhist community had emerged at Dunhuang in western China

    • At Dunhuang two branches of the Silk Road join together


Dunhuang l.jpg
Dunhuang

  • Between 600 and 1000 A.D., Buddhists built hundreds of cave temples around Dunhuang depicting scenes of Buddha

  • Assembled libraries of religious literature

  • Supported missionaries which spread Buddhism throughout China

Boddhisattva Avalokitesvara,south wall, Cave 45


Buddhism in china l.jpg
Buddhism in China

  • Buddhism attracted Chinese because of its high standards of morality, its intellectual sophistication, and its promise of salvation

  • Buddhists monasteries became important elements of the local economies

    • Monasteries became sizeable estates due to contributions of wealthy converts

    • Cultivated lands extensively and distributed a portion of the harvest in times of drought, famine, or other hardship


Buddhism in china24 l.jpg
Buddhism in China

  • In some ways, Buddhism posed a challenge to Chinese cultural and social traditions

    • Buddhist morality encouraged serious Buddhists to follow a celibate, monastic lifestyle

    • Chinese morality centered on the family unit and obligations of filial piety

      • It strongly encouraged procreation so that new generations could venerate family ancestors

  • Buddhism was also seen as economically harmful because the monasteries did not pay taxes and suspicious because of its foreign origin


Buddhism and daoism l.jpg
Buddhism and Daoism

  • To alleviate the tension, Buddhist missionaries tried to tailor their message to Chinese audiences

    • They explained Buddhist concepts in familiar Chinese vocabulary, particularly Daoism

    • Continued to encourage monasteries and celibacies but also reaffirmed the validity of family life

      • Taught that one son in the monastery would bring salvation to ten generations of his kin


Chan buddhism l.jpg
Chan Buddhism

  • The result was a Buddhism with Chinese characteristics

  • The most popular school of Buddhism in China was Chan (Zen in Japanese)

    • Deemphasized written texts and instead focused on intuition and sudden flashes of insight in the search for spiritual enlightenment (like Daoists)

  • Xuanzang and other pilgrims traveled to India to visit the holy places and returned to expand Buddhism’s popularity in China

Xuanzang


Hostility l.jpg
Hostility

  • Daoists resented Buddhism’s encroachment on their following

  • Confucians objected to Buddhism’s exaltation of celibacy and condemned Buddhist monasteries as wasteful and unproductive burdens on society

  • Tang emperors ordered the closure of monasteries but the measure was not thoroughly implemented

  • Buddhism maintained its popularity

Buddha from the mid-Tang Dynasty (712-781)


Buddhism and confucianism l.jpg
Buddhism and Confucianism

  • Song emperors did not persecute Buddhists, but they actively supported native Chinese cultural traditions in order to limit the influence of foreign religions

    • Contributed particularly to the Confucians

  • Song Confucians found much to admire in Buddhism and became influenced by it

    • The result was called neo-Confucianism which rejected Buddhism as a faith but adapted Buddhist themes and reasoning to Confucian interests and values


Part 2 hinduism l.jpg

Part 2: Hinduism

Lesson 13


Hinduism l.jpg
Hinduism

  • While Buddhism was growing and evolving in China, Hinduism gradually displaced Buddhism as the most popular religion in India

  • Like Mahayana Buddhism, Hinduism experienced changes in doctrine and practices to more effectively address the interests and needs of ordinary people


Roots of hinduism the vedas l.jpg
Roots of Hinduism: The Vedas

  • The Vedas (“Wisdom”) were collections of prayers and hymns of the Indo-European Aryans who migrated into India around 1500 B.C.

    • Reflect the knowledge that priests needed to carry out their functions

  • The Aryans developed a social structure with sharp distinctions between individuals and groups according to the occupations and roles in society

    • These distinctions became the basis of the caste system

    • Brahmins (priests) were at the top of the caste system

Fanciful depiction of the Indo-Aryans entering India


Roots of hinduism the vedas32 l.jpg
Roots of Hinduism: The Vedas

  • The Vedas required ritual sacrifices by which the Aryans hoped to win favor of the gods

    • Gods required constant attention

    • Proper honor for the gods required households to have brahmins perform no less than five sacrifices per day

    • As time passed, many Aryans, to include the brahmins became dissatisfied with the sacrificial cults of the Vedas, viewing them as sterile rituals rather than genuine means of communicating with the gods

    • Sought something to satisfy their spiritual longings


Roots of hinduism the dravidians l.jpg
Roots of Hinduism: The Dravidians

  • Beginning about 800 B.C., many individuals retreated into the forests of the Ganges Valley, lived as hermits, and contemplated on the relationships between human beings, the world, and the gods

  • They drew inspiration from the Dravidians who believed human souls took on new physical forms after the death of their bodily hosts

    • Transmigration and reincarnation: An individual soul could depart one body at death and become associated with another body through a new birth

Idyllic representation of the Dravidians before the arrival of the Indo-Aryans


Roots of hinduism the upanishads l.jpg
Roots of Hinduism: The Upanishads

  • Aryan and Dravidian values began to blend

  • The Upanishads were Indian reflections and dialogues from around 800-400 B.C. that reflected basic Hindu concepts

    • Upanishads means “a sitting in front of” and refers to the practice of disciples gathering before a sage for discussion of religious issues


Roots of hinduism the upanishads35 l.jpg
Roots of Hinduism: The Upanishads

  • Upanishads taught that appearances are deceiving, that individual human beings are not separate and autonomous creatures

    • Instead, each person participates in a larger cosmic order and forms a small part of a universal soul (Brahman)

  • The physical world is a theater of change instability, and illusion

  • The Brahman is an external, unchanging, permanent foundation of all things that exist– the only genuine reality


Roots of hinduism the upanishads36 l.jpg
Roots of Hinduism: The Upanishads

  • Individuals souls were born into the physical world not once, but many times

  • Souls appear most often as humans, but sometimes as animals, plants, or other vegetable matter

  • The highest goal of the individual soul is to escape this cycle of birth and rebirth and enter into permanent union with Brahman


Roots of hinduism teachings of the upanishads l.jpg
Roots of Hinduism: Teachings of the Upanishads

  • Samsara

    • Upon death, individual souls go temporarily to the World of the Fathers and then return in new incarnation

  • Karma

    • “Now as a man is like this or like that, according as he acts and according as he behaves, so will he be: a man of good acts will become good, a man of bad acts, bad. He becomes pure by pure deeds, bad by bad deeds.”

      • Brhadaranyaka Upanishad


Roots of hinduism teachings of the upanishads38 l.jpg
Roots of Hinduism: Teachings of the Upanishads

  • Mosksha

    • The goal (escaping the cycle of rebirth)

    • A deep, dreamless sleep that came with permanent liberation from physical incarnation

    • Obtained by asceticism and meditation

      • Separation from the physical world to merge with Brahman

Shiva: The Lord of Yoga meditating on Mount Kailasa in the Himalayas


The emergence of popular hinduism l.jpg
The Emergence of Popular Hinduism

  • Bhagavad Gita

    • Short poem finalized around 400 A.D. which represented the new Hindu ethical teaching that promised salvation to those who participated actively in the world and met their caste responsibilities

      • Contrast with the Upanishads that taught that individuals could escape the cycle of incarnation only through renunciation and detachment from the world


The emergence of popular hinduism40 l.jpg
The Emergence of Popular Hinduism

  • Bhagavad Gita and other new teachings made life easier for the lay classes

  • Individuals should meet their responsibilities in a detached fashion without striving for reward or recognition

  • Perform your duties faithfully, concentrating on your actions alone, with no thought of the consequences


Four principal aims of human life l.jpg
Four Principal Aims of Human Life

  • Dharma

    • Obedience to religious and moral laws

  • Artha

    • The pursuit of economic well-being and honest prosperity

  • Kama

    • The enjoyment of social, physical, and sexual pleasure

  • Moksha

    • The salvation of the soul

  • A proper balance of dharma, artha, and kama would help an individual attain moksha


Popularity spreads l.jpg
Popularity Spreads

  • As devotional Hinduism evolved and became increasingly distinct from the Upanishads and the brahmins, its appeal spread across Indian society

  • Hinduism gradually displaced Buddhism as the most popular religion in India

  • Buddhist monks began to confine themselves to their monasteries rather than actively seeking to spread their message


Major world religions source about inc http christianity about com library weekly blreligiontop htm l.jpg
Major World ReligionsSource: About, Inc http://christianity.about.com/library/weekly/blreligiontop.htm

ReligionMembers

Christianity 2 Billion

Islam 1.2 Billion 

Hinduism 785 Million 

Buddhism 360 Million 

Judaism 17 Million 

Sikhism 16 Million

Baha‘i 5 Million

Confucianism 5 Million

Jainism 4 Million

Shintoism 3 Million

Wicca .7 Million

Zoroastrianism .2 Million


Religion today in china and india l.jpg

China is officially atheist.

The CIA World Factbook estimates Daoists, Buddhists, and Muslims make up 1%-2% of China’s population and Christians make up 3%-4%

Population of 1,330,044,544

The CIA World Factbook reports India is

81.3% Hindu

12% Muslim

2.3% Christian

1.9% Sikh

2.5% other groups including Buddhist, Jain, Parsi

Religion Today in China and India


Distribution of buddhists today source http www adherents com largecom com buddhist html l.jpg

Country %

Thailand 95

Cambodia 90

Myanmar 88

Bhutan 75

Sri Lanka 70

Tibet 65

Laos 60

Vietnam 55

Japan 50

Macau 45

Taiwan 43

Country Number of Buddhists

China 102,000,000

Japan 89,650,000

Thailand 55,480,000

Vietnam 49,690,000

Myanmar 41,610,000

Sri Lanka 12,540,000

South Korea 10,920,000

Taiwan 9,150,000

Cambodia 9,130,000

India 7,000,000

Distribution of Buddhists TodaySource: http://www.adherents.com/largecom/com_buddhist.html


Buddhism today the dalai lama l.jpg
Buddhism Today: the Dalai Lama

  • Tenzin Gyatso is the 14th Dalai Lama

    • His followers consider him a living Buddha, the incarnation of the Buddha of Compassion

  • Unsuccessfully tried to protect Tibet’s rights after China invaded

    • Ultimately fled to Dharamsala, India where he currently leads Tibet’s government in exile

    • Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989

  • In 2007 China made it illegal for the Dalai Lama to reincarnate without government permission!


Slide47 l.jpg
Next

  • Judaism and Christianity


ad