Lesson 12 The Needs that Drive Us All Book ３ William Glasser
Contents Lesson 12 Part One: Warm-upPart Two: Background InformationPart Three: Text analysisPart Four: Detailed Study Part Five: Text Extension Book ３ W B T L E
Lesson 12 - The Needs That Drive Us All Part One Warm-up • What do you think are/are not the basic needs of human beings? • Please choose from the following list or add more to the list. power safety independence respect freedom courage … food & clothing love friendship wealth fun self-fulfillment To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 12 - The Needs That Drive Us All • Besides survival needs, if you are to choose only one more basic need, which will you choose? power safety independence respect freedom courage … food & clothing love friendship wealth fun self-fulfillment To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 12 –The needs That Drive Us All Part Two Background Information • Author • Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs • Tom Sawyer
Lesson 12 –The needs That Drive Us All • Author William Glasser Dr. Glasser is an internationally recognized psychiatrist who is best known as the author of Reality Therapy, a method of psychotherapy he created in 1965, which is now taught all over the world. To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 12 –The needs That Drive Us All I. Author After writing the counseling book, Reality Therapy, in 1965, he added education with Schools Without Failurein 1969, greatly expanded the understanding of motivation and behavior with Choice Theory in 1998, and finally helped people improve their own mental health or happiness, with Warning:Psychiatry Can Be Hazardous to Your Mental Healthin 2003. To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 12 –The needs That Drive Us All I. Author He concludes that we are social creatures and need each other. However, the cause of almost all psychological symptoms is our inability to get along with the important people in our lives. He proves that so-called mental illnesses can be cured (or made healthy again) by having happy marital, family, teacher-student, and manager-worker relationships. To be continued on the next page.
Reality Therapy Lesson 12 –The needs That Drive Us All I. Author Everybody is required to live in a world full of other people, and every individual must learn to satisfy his own needs in a way that does not encroach upon another person's needs. To be continued on the next page.
In Education Lesson 12 –The needs That Drive Us All I. Author Dr. Glasser believes that schools systematically deprive students of a chance to behave and learn in responsible ways. All participants within the classroom have responsibilities. The teacher has a responsibility to teach in a way that makes their subject relevant and interesting. The students have the responsibility to show up to class, study and learn. To be continued on the next page.
In Education Lesson 12 –The needs That Drive Us All I. Author To Glasser all of us have the same basic needs. If schools helped us understand how to meet those needs, we would have few disciplinary problems, and students would be actively engaged in satisfying their innate curiosity. They would also tend to graduate with healthy self-esteem and less self-doubt. The end of Author.
Lesson 12 –The needs That Drive Us All II. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 12 –The needs That Drive Us All II. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Abraham H. Maslow developed a five-level hierarchy of human needs. A major point of this hierarchy is that each need level must be generally satisfied before the person attempts to fill those needs on the next level. The first two needs are considered primary, or lower-order needs; the remaining three are secondary, or higher-order needs. The end of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
Lesson 12 –The needs That Drive Us All II. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs The physiological need is the fundamental need for food, clothing and shelter. The safety and security need is the need to avoid bodily harm and uncertainty about one’s well-being. The social (love) need is the need to be accepted by people whose opinions and companionship you value. The esteem need is the need to feel important, admired, and worthwhile. The self-actualization or self-realization need is the need to get the maximum reward from one’e life experience; to maximize one’s skills, abilities, and potential. To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Part Three Text Appreciation • Text Analysis • 1. Theme • 2.Structure • 3.Questions for Comprehension • 4.Questions on Details • II. Detailed Study
Theme Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All • Text Analysis In this essay, the author is concerned with human psychology. According to him, human beings are driven by five basic needs. Among them the need for power is uniquely human and is a great incentive for one to work hard. Another concern is that learning is a natural pleasure and good teaching should satisfy the students’ need for fun. The author encourages the young students to increase their self-awareness of their humanness so as to better deal with their problems. The end of Theme.
Structure of the text Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All • Text Analysis Human beings have five basic needs. Part 1 (paras. 1 ) about: Part 2 (paras. ) about: Part 3 (paras. ) about: —2 3—10 Desire for power is a genuine human motivation. 11—14 Fun is a basic human need. The end of Structure.
Questions for Comprehension Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All • Text Analysis Question:How do you classify the five basic needs of human beings into two groups? The first need is biological need of human beings, and the other four needs are psychological needs of human beings. To be continued on the next page.
Questions for Comprehension Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All • Text Analysis Question:How does the author echo the opening sentence at the end of the essay? The opening sentence talks about the biological life of human beings, while the ending remarks deal with the psychological needs of human beings. All these five needs are motive forces that drive us to strive for survival and for success. That is how human progress has been and is being made. To be continued on the next page.
Questions for Comprehension Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All • Text Analysis Question:What is the author’s view on the need for power? Power is usually rejected in many cultures, but the author wants to tell people that the desire for power is just the psychological need without moral judgment. The author believes that the desire for power exits in our daily life and also is important for the development of ourselves as individuals. To be continued on the next page.
Questions for Comprehension Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All • Text Analysis Question:What is the author’s view on the basic need for fun? Most people would not like to regard fun as a basic need of human beings, but author believes that fun is an important part in our work and learning. Only with fun, can we persist in what might be boring. The end of Questions for Comprehension.
Questions on Details Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All • What does the author think are the needs that drive us all? • What in the author’s opinion is the unique human need? • What will happen if our needs are not satisfied? • Is power a good thing or a bad thing? • Why is it difficult to satisfy the need for power? • Why do tyrants preach the virtues of humility? • Why do we support those who are in power if we are taught and want to be humble? • What do successful people do about their power? • Are people easily satisfied with the power they already have? • Human beings are intensely competitive according to the author, then what do they compete for? • What is the greatest work incentive? To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Part Four Detailed Study Sentence Paraphrase 1. All five needs are built into our genetic structure as instructions for how we must attempt to live our lives. All are important and must be reasonably satisfied if we are to fulfill our biological destiny. (1) what we have to experience as humans All five needs are inborn as part of our nature and direct us as we go through our lives. All of them must be fulfilled if we are going to experience lives as humans. go to 2
3. our biological destiny: what we have to experience as humans: to go through childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age, to produce offspring and die
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Phrases and Expressions 2. build into = build in • to construct or include as an integral part of sth. • Examples: • We don't want to build in too much furniture, just a bookcase and two wardrobes. • The cost of hiring equipment should be built into your calculations. • I hope you'll build some entertainment into the schedule for the training.
built-in a. forming a part of sth. that cannot be • separated from it. • a built-in microphone/built-in behaviors
4. Verbs that commonly collocate with the word "power": abolish, abuse, acquire, come to, consolidate, decentralize, deprive sb of, establish, exercise, exert power, (re)gain, give up, grab, hand over, have, hold on to, misuse, possess, recognize, reduce, restore, restrict, return to, seize, share, etc.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Sentence Paraphrase • 5. We are also born with no choice but to feel pain when a need is frustrated, and pleasure when it is satisfied. (2) More examples but + infinitive • He did nothing but laugh. • Nothing remains but to die. but+infinitive without “to” when the verb is “do” but+infinitive with “to” when the verb is not “do” go to 3 To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All • Sentence Paraphrase He could do nothingbut take back what he had said. She seemingly has done nothing but accomplish the impossible. They desire nothing but to enjoy the present moment. We had no choice but to turn back. back to 2
Contrast Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Writing Devices Example from the text 6. The quicker and more severe the frustration, the more pain we feel; the quicker and deeper the satisfaction, the more pleasure we experience. (2) contrast contrast Contrast is used to show differences. To be continued on the next page.
Contrast Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Writing Devices More examples Even politicians try to appear humble, emphasizing how much they wish to serve and how little they want to tell us what to do. (3) To be continued on the next page.
Contrast: more examples Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Writing Devices • To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace. • George Washington, January 8, 1790 • Let us never negotiateout of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate. • President Kennedy, Inaugural Address • They are wonderful when they are good, he thought. There is no people like them when they are good and when they go bad there is no people that is worse. • Ernest Hemingway, For Whom the Bell Tolls The end of Contrast.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Sentence Paraphrase 7. Simple survival needs like hunger, thirst, and sexual desire are relatively clear-cut, and we quickly learn what particular discomfort is attached to the denial of these basic needs. (3) a situation in which someone is not allowed to have their rights to be connected with It is relatively easy to define simple survival needs that satisfy hunger, thirst and sexual desire because we can easily find what particular discomfort we feel when these basic needs are denied. go to 4
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Word Study 8.clear-cut • a. a.definite and easy to understand, • recognize, or make a decision about • b. having a definite outer shape • Examples: • The situation was not as clear-cut as he’d have liked. • the clear-cut outline of the mountains
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Sentence Paraphrase 9. The need for power is particularly difficult to satisfy because in many cultures the mores of the culture condemn those who openly strive for it. (3) • the customs, moral values In many cultures openly trying to gain power is regarded as running counter to the code of conduct of culture, and those who do so are strongly disapproved of, so it is especially difficult for one to meet his/her need for power. go to 5
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Word Study 10. condemn Translation v.a. to say publicly that you think sb. or sth. is bad or wrong b. to give sb. a severe punishment c. to force to live in an unpleasant way or to do sth. unpleasant • 谴责 • 惩罚 • 迫使陷于不幸境地 Word formation n. condemnation • Examples: • Politicians have condemned the attacks. • The prisoner was condemned to death. • A large proportion of such children are condemned to fail.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All 11. Phrases and Expressions 1111strive for • to make a lot of efforts to achieve sth. • Examples: • More and more women are striving for more • freedom. • We strive to be accurate, but some mistakes are • inevitable. The end of Phrases and Expressions.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Sentence Paraphrase • 12. In fact, if it were not for the need for power, our whole economy would crumble because almost all that is bought and sold, except for bare necessities, is for the sake of power. (4) • collapse, lose effectiveness subjunctive mood for the purpose of In fact, it is our need for power that has pushed the development of our whole economy because all what we buy and sell is to serve our purpose to gain power. go to 6
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All 13.Word Study 13. humane • a.characterized by kindness, mercy, or • compassion • Example: • They write letters demanding humane • treatment of prisoners. • More words: humanism humanitarian humanity the Humanities 人道主义，人文主义 博爱的，人道主义的 人类， 仁慈 人文学科
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All 14 . Sentence Paraphrase That their teachings have been largely accepted (when what they advocate is so obviously self-serving ) is a tribute to how effective they have been in getting their message across. (6) interested in gaining an advantage for yourself subjective clause • to be a clear sign of the good qualities that sb. or sth. has (证明) It is surprising that what they propagate should be accepted by many, for obviously their propaganda serves their own interests, helping to maintain their power. This clearly shows how effective their propaganda machine is. go to 7
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Word Study 15. tribute Translation • 颂扬 • 公开赞扬 • 证明，标志 • n. sth. you say, do or build to show that • you respect and admire sb. • Examples: • They showed the program as a tribute to the two men. • I’d like to pay tribute to the workers for all their hard work. • This year’s success is a tribute to all your hard work. The end of Word Study.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All • Phrases and Expressions 16. get across • to make people understand sth. • Examples: • He sometimes has trouble getting his • meaning across in English. • What message are you trying to get across to • the consumer? (get sth. across to sb.) • I was trying to get across how much I • admired him. (get across+ how/what)
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Word Study 17. band Translation • 乐队 • 一群 • 带子 • 结合在一起 • The band played while we danced. • A band of students brought their grievances • before the dean. • She wore a red band in her hair. • The people banded together against the • robbers.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Phrases and Expressions 18. the lion’s share ”lion” phrases • the largest part of sth. • Example: • The lion’s share of his money went to his • grandchildren. To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Phrases and Expressions • 大胆的，勇猛的 • 巴结社会名流的人 • 拦路虎，可怕的障碍 • 身处险境 • 被置于危险境地 • 使某人红极一时 • 在家像狮子， • 出外像老鼠。 • lionhearted • lion-hunter • lion in the way • in the lion’s den • be thrown/tossed • to the lions • make a lion of sb. • A lion at home, • a mouse abroad.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All 19. Sentence Paraphrase Who do you know who is so completely satisfied with his life that he can go a week without complaining that someone has gotten in the way of what he wanted to do? (7) • prevent sb. from doing sth. a relative clause modifying “Who” People are constantly complaining that they are prevented from achieving their goal. Actually you can hardly find a person who doesn't make such complaints before a week goes by. go to 8
“Who do you know who is so completely satisfied with his life that he can go a week without complaining that someone has gotten in the way of what he wanted to do?” (7) Question:What does the author indicate by the sentence? Power is a strong psychological desire of human beings. When people are prevented in their process toward it, they will usually complain and be displeased. Even when they think they have achieved what they want to gain in life, they will not feel content.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All 20. Phrases and Expressions 20. get in the way of sth. Related expressions • to prevent sth. from happening • Example: • I never let unimportant details get in the way • of a good plan. To be continued on the next page.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All Phrases and Expressions • get/be in the/sb.’s way • You will get in the way if you stay in the kitchen. • Can I move the books? They are in my way. • not stand/get in sb.’s way • I won’tstand in your way if you are determined. • be/get/keep out of the/sb.’s way • Make sure the kids keep out of the way while I am working.
Lesson 12- The Needs That Drive Us All 21. Sentence Paraphrase Most of us cannot get through a day without complaint: To be satisfied with how others have treated us for a week would seem like an eternity. (7) to be a period that seems to be very long or never to end Most of us can find something to complain about daily. Any feeling of satisfaction with how we are treated won’t last as long as a week. go to 9