Design Principles. Basic process and guidelines for interaction design. What is design?. achieving goals within constraints goals - purpose who is it for, why do they want it constraints materials, platforms trade-offs. Interactions and Interventions.
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Design Principles Basic process and guidelines for interaction design
What is design? achieving goals within constraints • goals - purpose • who is it for, why do they want it • constraints • materials, platforms • trade-offs
Interactions and Interventions • design interactions not just interfaces • not just the immediate interaction • e.g. stapler in office – technology changes interaction style • designing interventions not just artefacts • not just the system, but also … • documentation, manuals, tutorials • what we say and do as well as what we make
The process of design scenariostask analysis what iswanted guidelines principles analysis interviews ethnography what is there vs. what is wanted precisespecification design dialoguenotations implement and deploy evaluation heuristics prototype architectures documentation help
Traditional ‘waterfall’ lifecycle Requirements analysis Design Code Test Maintenance
Spiral Lifecycle model From cctr.umkc.edu/~kennethjuwng/spiral.htm
What are Design Principles? • Rules of thumb to help with the design process • AKA Design Guidelines, Design Rules • Shneiderman, Designing the User Interface • Dix, Finlay, Abowd, Beale, Human-Computer Interaction • Foley et al, Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice • And many more - including in styleguides, discussed later
Concepts, Principles, Guidelines • No “cookbooks”, no universal checklists • Are neither complete nor orthogonal • Can all be “broken”, often to satisfy another rule • Have underpinnings in psychology or experience or common sense • Understand the higher level principles that apply across situations, display types, etc. • Implement the standards and guidelines
Usability Principles • Categories • Learnability • Support for learning for users of all levels • Flexibility • Support for multiple ways of doing tasks • Robustness • Support for recovery • Always think about exceptions, suitability
Usability principles (Nielsen 2001) • Visibility of system status • Match between system and the real world • User control and freedom • Consistency and standards • Help users recognize, diagnose and recover from errors • Error prevention • Recognition rather than recall • Flexibility and efficiency of use • Aesthetic and minimalist design • Help and documentation
1. Learnability Principles • Ease with which new users can begin effective interaction and achieve maximal performance • Predictability • Synthesizability • Familiarity Metaphor • Generalizability • Consistency
1.1 Predictability • I think that this action will do….
1.2 Synthesizability • Support for user in assessing the effect of past operations on current system state
1.3 Familiarity • Does UI task leverage existing real-world or domain knowledge? • Really relevant to first impressions • Use of metaphors • Potential pitfalls
1.4 Generalizability • Can knowledge of one system/UI be extended to other similar ones? • Example: cut & paste in different applications • Aid: UI Developers guidelines
1.5 Consistency • Likeness in behavior between similar tasks/operations/situations/terminology • Dialogue boxes always have yes/no/cancel buttons
Consistency (cont’d) • Avoid special cases and special rules • For command line systems - consistent syntax • Find consistency between commands, unify them - as in Unix pipes for file I/O and for process inter-communications
Drag a file icon to: Folder on same physical disk Folder on another physical disk Different disk Trash can Result: File is moved to folder File is copied there File is copied there File is discarded (In)Consistency Example - Macintosh
2. Flexibility Principles • Multiplicity of ways that users and system exchange information • Dialog Initiative • Multithreading • Task migratability • Substitutivity • Customizability
2.1 Dialog Initiative • Not hampering the user by placing constraints on how dialog is done • User pre-emptive • User initiates actions • More flexible, generally more desirable • System pre-emptive • System does all prompts, user responds • Sometimes necessary
2.2 Multithreading • Allowing user to perform more than one task at a time • Two types • Concurrent • Input goes to multiple tasks simultaneously • Interleaved • Many tasks, but input goes to one at a time
2.3 Task Migratability • Ability to move performance of task to the entity (user or system) that can do it better • Spell-checking, flight controls • For what kinds of tasks should the user be in control?
2.4 Substitutivity • Equivalent values can be substituted for each other • Point at spreadsheet cell vs enter name • Give temperature via slider or by typing
2.4 Substitutivity • Flexibility in details of operations • Allow user to choose suitable interaction methods • Allow different ways to • perform actions, specify data, configure • Allow different ways of presenting output • to suit task& user
2.5 Customizability • Ability of user to modify interface • By user - adaptability • Is this a good thing? • By system - adaptivity • Is this a good thing?
3. Robustness Principles • Supporting user in determining successful achievement and assessment of goals • Observability • Error Prevention • Recoverability • Responsiveness • Task Conformance
3.1 Observability • Can user determine internal state of system from what she perceives? • Browsability • Explore current state (without changing it) • Reduces memory load • But don’t overwhelm user with information either • Reachability • Navigate through observable states • Persistence • How long does observable state persist? • Observability also aids learnability
3.1 Observability - Role of Feedback • Feedback helps create observability • Feedback taxonomy (generally don’t need all of these) • “I understand what you have asked me to do” • “I am doing what you have asked me to do” • “And it will take me this much longer” • Song and dance routine to distract user (busy interval as opposed to idle interval) • “And here are some intermediate results to keep you happy until I am done • “All done, what’s next?”
Work Area List 2 Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 3.1 Observability – Forest + Trees
3.1 Observability – Acrobat Reader Acrobat Reader with ToC to give context Forest is the bookmarks, tree is the single page
3.1 Observability - Scroll Bar • Scroll bar size indicates % in view - but does not indicate absolute sizes. • Can add other info, such as • Page 5 of 12
3.1 Observability • How did I get here? • Where can I go from here? • Tree showing history of queries Presidents elected before age 50 & Democratic & & & from East of graduate from farm Mississippi degree family & served two terms in office
Operation visibility • Can see avail actions • Menus vs. command shell • Grayed menu items provide context
Visibility Minimizes User Memory Load • Recognition is better than recall • Make visible! • Describe required input format, include example and default • Date: _ _ - _ _ - _ _ (DD-MM-YY) • Also avoids errors
3.2 Error Prevention • Make it hard for the user to make errors • Gray out disabled menu items • Ask for confirmation of major actions
3.2 Error Prevention • Don’t let the user do something that will lead to an error message
3.3 Recoverability • Ability to take corrective action upon recognizing error • Forward recovery • Ability to fix when we can’t undo • Backward recovery • Undo previous error(s) • Abort operation underway • Only makes sense if is a slow operation • Encourages experimentation (hence learnability) by reducing cost of making mistakes
3.4 Responsiveness • Users perception of rate of communication with system (not always right) • Response time • Time for system to respond in some way to user action(s) • Response OK if matches user expectations • Once user enjoys fast response, is hard to go back to slower response • Dial-up versus DSL or Cable Modem
3.4 Responsiveness • Response to motor actions • Keyboarding, mouse movement - less than 100 msec. • Rich Human Factors literature on this • Consistency is important - experimental result • Users preferred longer but more consistent response time • Times that differed 10% to 20% were seen as same • Sometimes argued that too fast is not good • Makes user feel like they need to do something quickly to keep up with computer?
3.5 Task Conformance • Does system support all tasks user wishes to perform in expected ways? • Task completeness • Can system do all tasks of interest? • Task adequacy • Can user understand how to do tasks? • Does it allow user to define new tasks? • Extensibility
Satisfying Fun Entertaining Enjoyable Helpful Motivating Aesthetically pleasing Motivating Rewarding Emotionally fulfilling Support creativity …and more User experience goals
Example • Most important usability principles for • Movie kiosk • Instant messenger • Flight control • Your project??
Styleguides • Codify many of these principles for a particular look and feel • Mac OS, Windows, Motif, Palm, Blackberry • Developed in concert with toolkit, but go beyond toolkit
Introduction to the Apple Human Interface Guidelines What Are the Mac OS X Human Interface Guidelines? Who Should Read This Document? Organization of This Document Conventions Used in This Document See Also Part I: Fundamentals Human Interface Design Human Interface Design Principles Keep Your Users in Mind The Development Process Design Decisions Managing Complexity Extending the Interface Involving Users in the Design Process Part II: The Macintosh Experience First Impressions Packaging Installation General Installer Guidelines Setup Assistants Mac OS X Environment The Finder The Dock The File System Multiple Users Remote Log In Assistive Technologies Networking Application Services Displays The Always-On Environment Using Existing Technologies Providing User Assistance Internationalizing Your Application Storing Passwords Printing Choosing Colors Setting Fonts and Typography Characteristics Selecting Attributes Associated With People Speech Technologies Part III: The Aqua Interface User Input The Mouse and Other Pointing Devices The Keyboard Selecting Editing Text Drag and Drop Drag and Drop Overview Drag and Drop Semantics Selection Feedback Drag Feedback Destination Feedback Drop Feedback Clippings Text Fonts Style Icons Icon Genres and Families Icon Perspectives and Materials Conveying an Emotional Quality in Icons Suggested Process for Creating Aqua Icons Tips for Designing Aqua Icons Cursors Standard Cursors Designing Your Own Cursors Typical TOC - MAC OS X
Excerpt from OS X Styleguide Drag and Drop Overview Ideally, users should be able to drag any content from any window to any other window that accepts the content’s type. If the source and destination are not visible at the same time, the user can create a clipping by dragging data to a Finder window; the clipping can then be dragged into another application window at another time. Drag and drop should be considered an ease-of-use technique. Except in cases where drag and drop is so intrinsic to an application that no suitable alternative methods exist—dragging icons in the Finder, for example—there should always be another method for accomplishing a drag-and-drop task. The basic steps of the drag-and-drop interaction model parallel a copy-and-paste sequence in which you select an item, choose Copy from the Edit menu, specify a destination, and then choose Paste. However, drag and drop is a distinct technique in itself and does not use the Clipboard. Users can take advantage of both the Clipboard and drag and drop without side effects from each other. A drag-and-drop operation should provide immediate feedback at the significant points: when the data is selected, during the drag, when an appropriate destination is reached, and when the data is dropped. The data that is pasted should be target-specific. For example, if a user drags an Address Book entry to the “To” text field in Mail, only the email address is pasted, not all of the person’s address information. You should implement Undo for any drag-and-drop operation you enable in your application. If you implement a drag-and-drop operation that is not undoable, display a confirmation dialog before implementing the drop. A confirmation dialog appears, for example, when the user attempts to drop an icon into a write-only drop box on a shared volume, because the user does not have privileges to open the drop box and undo the action. (Color added for emphasis.)
Styleguides • General User Interface Design Style Guides • Apple Human Interface Guidelines (Mac OS X) Design Guidelines • Microsoft User Interface Guidelines (Click in the left tree on User Interface Design...) • Windows XP Guidelines • Yale Web Style Guide (2nd Edition) • Java Look and Feel Guidelines (version 1) • Java Look and Feel Guidelines version 2 • Java Look and Feel Guidelines: Advanced Topics • IBM 3D design Guidelines • Silicon Graphics Indigo Magic User Interface Guidelines • Open Source Usability Guidelines • Motif Style Guide • KDE User Interface Guidelines • Gnome Human Interface Guidelines 1.0 • Corporate User Interface Standards and Guidelines (samples) • Telstra Online Standards • Taligent Human Interface Guidelines • Ameritech Graphical User Interface Standards and Design Guidelines • http://www.experiencedynamics.com/science_of_usability/ui_style_guides/
And More Styleguides …. • Government funded Usability Guidelines • MITRE Guidelines for Designing User Interface Software (US Airforce) • Research based Web Design and Usability Guidelines (Dept. of Health and Human Services) • Cancer Institute Usability Guidelines • NASA User Interface Guidelines • Canadian Command Decision Aiding Technology (COMDAT) Operator-Machine Interface (OMI) Style Guide: Version 1.0 • Gaming Devices (J2ME games) • Games Usability Guidelines (from Nokia) • Wireless and Mobile Usability Guidelines • Palm OS Design Guidelines • Openwave GSM Guidelines • Openwave Top 10 Usability Guidelines for WAP Applications • Blackberry and RIM wireless handheld UI Developers Guide (PDF) • Sprint Usability Requirements for XHTML (Application Developers Program) • NTT DoCoMo imode service guideline (user interfaces) • Accessibility Guidelines • Techniques for Web content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0