THE NICHD RESEARCH PROGRAM IN READING DEVELOPMENT, READING DISORDERS, AND READING INSTRUCTION INITIATED: 1965 G. Rei - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

latika
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
THE NICHD RESEARCH PROGRAM IN READING DEVELOPMENT, READING DISORDERS, AND READING INSTRUCTION INITIATED: 1965 G. Rei PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
THE NICHD RESEARCH PROGRAM IN READING DEVELOPMENT, READING DISORDERS, AND READING INSTRUCTION INITIATED: 1965 G. Rei

play fullscreen
1 / 38
Download Presentation
THE NICHD RESEARCH PROGRAM IN READING DEVELOPMENT, READING DISORDERS, AND READING INSTRUCTION INITIATED: 1965 G. Rei
190 Views
Download Presentation

THE NICHD RESEARCH PROGRAM IN READING DEVELOPMENT, READING DISORDERS, AND READING INSTRUCTION INITIATED: 1965 G. Rei

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. THE NICHD RESEARCH PROGRAM IN READING DEVELOPMENT, READING DISORDERS, AND READING INSTRUCTION INITIATED: 1965 G. Reid Lyon, PhD National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH

  2. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • How do children learn to read? • Why do some children have difficulties learning to read? • How can we prevent reading difficulties? • How can we remediate reading difficulties?

  3. NICHD Reading Research Program Univ of Massachusetts Rayner University of Washington Berninger Loyola Univ/Chicago Morrison Syracuse Univ Blachman Boy’s Town Smith Children’s Hospital/ Harvard LDRC Waber Tufts Wolf Mayo Clinic Kalusic Toronto Lovett SUNY Albany Vellutino Emerson Coll Aram San Luis Ebispo Lindamood/Bell Univ of Southern California Manis/Seidenberg UC Irvine Filipek Univ of California --San Diego, Salk Institute Bellugi Beth Israel Galaburda Ya le Shaywitz Haskins Labs Fowler/Liberman Johns Hopkins Denckla D.C./Houston Forman/Moats Georgetown Univ Eden Bowman Gray Wood Georgia State R. Morris Univ of Georgia Hynd U of Florida Alexander/Conway U of Houston Francis Colorado LDRC Defries Yale Methodology Fletcher Florida State Torgesen/Wagner Univ of Texas Med Ctr Foorman/Fletcher Southern Illinois U Moltese Univ of Missouri Geary NICHD Sites Univ of Arkansas-Med Ctr Dykman

  4. Change Leaders in Action

  5. EUROPEAN AND ASIAN SITES • China • England • Israel • Russia • Sweden • Turkey

  6. PARTICIPANTS • Children and Adults Studied: 42,062 • Good Readers (50TH %ile and above): 21,680 • Struggling Readers (< 25TH %ile): 20,382

  7. HOW DO CHILDREN LEARN TO READ • Substantial oral language interactions from birth onward. • Extensive literacy interactions from birth onward. • Using verbal interaction, language play, and oral reading to highlight the structure of the language. • ALL NECESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT

  8. HOW DO CHILDREN LEARN TO READ • They have developed an understanding that words that are spoken can be segmented into constituent abstract sounds (PHONEMES). • PHONEMIC AWARENESS

  9. Growth in word reading ability of children who begin first grade in the bottom 20% in Phoneme Awareness (Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, et al., 1997) Reading grade level 1 2 3 4 5 Grade level corresponding to age

  10. Growth in reading comprehension of children who begin first grade in the bottom 20% in Phoneme Awareness (Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, et al., 1997) Reading Grade Level Grade level corresponding to age

  11. HOW DO CHILDREN LEARN TO READ • They have learned that print represents the sounds of speech. - The alphabetic principle (NECESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT) • They have learned to connect letters and letter patterns to the sounds of speech. • Decoding and word recognition skills (NESESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT)

  12. HOW DO CHILDREN LEARN TO READ • They have learned how to apply decoding and word recognition skills accurately and rapidly when reading words and text. • They have learned how to use context to confirm accurate decoding and pronunciation of unknown words. • THESE ARE NECESSARY BUT NOT SUFFICIENT FOR LEARNING TO READ

  13. HOW DO CHILDREN LEARN TO READ • Have learned strategies to maximize their reading comprehension. • Can apply decoding and word recognition skills accurately and fluently. • Have developed adequate background knowledge and vocabulary to ensure connections between what is known. • Can actively employ language form and function (e.g. semantics, syntax, voice) to enhance comprehension. • Can actively monitor their comprehension

  14. Francis et al. (1996)

  15. Reading problems identified in Grade 3 and beyond require considerable intervention. Children do NOT simply outgrow reading problems. 74% of children identified as disabled in Grade 3 remained disabled in 9th grade (Francis et al., 1996) Importance of Early Assessment and Intervention for Reading Problems

  16. Early Intervention is Possible • Risk characteristics present in Kindergarten and G1 • Letter sound knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language development • Assess all children and INTERVENE- first in the classroom and then through supplemental instruction

  17. A Widely Proposed Model If progress is inadequate, move to next level. Level 1: Primary Intervention Enhanced general education classroom instruction. Level 2: Secondary Intervention Child receives more intense intervention in general education, presumably in small groups. Level 3: Tertiary Child placed in special education. Intervention increases in intensity and duration.

  18. Proactive Intervention • Explicit instruction in synthetic phonics, with emphasis on fluency. • Integrates decoding, fluency, and comprehension strategies. • 100% decodable text • Carefully constructed scope and sequence designed to prevent possible confusions. • Every activity taught to 100% mastery everyday.

  19. Responsive Intervention • Explicit instruction in synthetic phonics and in analogy phonics • Teaches decoding, using the alphabetic principle, fluency, and comprehension strategies in the context of reading and writing • No pre-determined scope and sequence • Teachers respond to student needs as they are observed. • Leveled text not phonetically decodable

  20. Kindergarten S#1 S#31

  21. At Risk Reader LeftRight Kindergarten First Grade

  22. Early Intervention Reduces the At- Risk Population • Primary alone: 5- 7% • Secondary alone: 2- 6% • Primary and Secondary: .01% to < 2%

  23. THE NICHD READING RESEARCH PROGRAM 1990-2000 SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS

  24. SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTIVITY • NUMBER OF PEER REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS: 2601 • NUMBER OF CITATIONS IN THE LITERATURE: 26,225 • NUMBER OF R01 GRANTS - CENTER SCIENTISTS: 38 • NUMBER OF NEW/YOUNG INVESTIGATORS TRAINED: 96 • NUMBER OF SCIENTIFIC HONORS RECEIVED: 114 • NUMBER OF NAT/INTERNATIONAL PRESENTATIONS: 1,720

  25. SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES • DEFINITIONAL MODEL OF DYSLEXIA • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF READING DISORDERS • FALSIFICATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL LAG HYPOTHESIS • GENDER DIFFERENCES IN READING DISORDERS

  26. SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES • DEVELOPMENTAL COURSE OF READING DISORDERS • COGNITIVE PROFILES/SUBTYPES OF READING DISORDERS • CAUSAL MECHANISMS IN READING DISORDERS: GENETICS • CAUSAL MECHANISMS IN READING DISORDERS: NEUROBIOLOGY

  27. CLINICAL IMPACT OF CENTERS • NUMBER OF CHILDREN/ ADULTS STUDIED: 42,062 • SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC COVERAGE: ALL LEVELS - HOLLINGSHEAD 1-5 • NUMBER OF PSYCHOLOGISTS AND PHYSICIANS TRAINED: 339

  28. PROGRAMMATIC AND POLICY IMPACT • CONGRESSIONAL APPEARANCES TO REPORT FINDINGS 7 • LEGESLATIVE ACTIONS BASED ON DATA 7 • NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND • READING EXCELLENCE ACT • HEALTH RESEARCH EXTENSION ACT • ESTABLISHMENT OF NATIONAL READING PANEL • FAMILY LITERACY LEGISLATION LANGUAGE • READING RESEARCH DISSEMINATION LEGISLATION LANGUAGE • DEVELOPMENT NOF EARLY SCREENING LEGISLATION LANGUAGE

  29. PROGRAMMATIC AND POLICY IMPACT • PRESENTATIONS TO STATE LEGISLATURES: 33 • STATES USING RESEARCH TO GUIDE POLICY: 33 • DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC CRITERIA TO GUIDE EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IMPACTING SCHOOLS • NICHD SCIENTIFIC CRITERIA ESTABLISHED IN FEDERAL LEGISLATION

  30. IMPACT OF READING RESEARCH ON SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT • 130 % INCREASE IN R01 SUBMISSIONS IN READING AND OTHER LEARNING DISABILITIES SINCE 1992 • ESTABLISHMENT OF 42-SITE RESEARCH NETWORK INCORPORATING LD CENTERS AND NON-CENTER R01 RESEARCH SITES • 88% INCREASE IN SBIR DEVELOPMENT OF ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT PROGRAMS FOR READING DISORDERS