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  1. Connecting the DotsFrom Reading Research to Practice Margie Hourihanforbetterschools@yahoo.com Aden Associates tiffany.aden@gmail.com

  2. Objectives • Effective Instruction • Big 5 • Common Core & Literacy • Components and Strategies of the Big 5 • Using Data to Drive Instruction • Types of Groupings • Planning for Instruction

  3. Direct, Explicit Instruction • Instruction is appropriate to grade level standards. • Materials are appropriate • Standards/objectives are communicated to students orally or in writing. • Connects previous learning to new learning. • Provides Explicit Modeling and Explaining (I DO) • Provides Practice. (WE DO & YOU DO) • Key Vocabulary Emphasized. • Specific and Immediate Feedback. • Instructional Pacing.

  4. Student Engagement Attributes • Elicit students to be engaged. • Elicits 85% or more to participate in the learning at the same time. • Makes engagement Mandatory by ensuring that 85% or more students are engaged.

  5. Ideas for Active Engagement • Individual White boards • Signal Cards • Buddy Buzz (Peanutbutter/Jelly Partners) • Buddy Interview • Think, Pair, Share • Thumbs up/thumbs in • Give One, Get One • Choral Response • Response Cards (A-D) • Red/Yellow/Green Cups

  6. Scaffolding

  7. Common Core Standards

  8. Good Reading Requires … • Accurate Word Reading, Fluency, and Comprehension 2 domains Decoding Comprehension x Phonics Vocabulary TextComprehension PA Fluency 5 components

  9. Areas of the Brain That Support Reading LETRS, Module 1

  10. Big 5 • Phonemic Awareness: the ability to isolate and manipulate the sounds of language. • Phonics: “the alphabetic principle” mapping print to sound • Vocabulary: the ability to understand and use a broad variety of words • Fluency: the ability to read with accuracy, automaticity and expression • Comprehension: the ability to understand what is read by applying appropriate strategies

  11. Phonemic Awareness • the ability to isolate and manipulate the sounds of language.

  12. Phonemic Awareness Can be done in the dark!

  13. Why do we teach Phonemic Awareness? • The best predictor of reading success in kindergarten and first grade is the ability to segment words and syllables into individual units (Lyon 1995) • Reading gains are achieved by mastering activities that build phonemic awareness (Foorman, Francis, Beller Winikates & Fletcher 1997) • The correlation between PA and learning to read is greater than the correlation between learning to read and intelligence, reading readiness & listening comprehension tests (Stanovich 1983) • PA instruction will accelerate reading growth for all children (Torgesen & Mathes 1998)

  14. *Phonology steps most supported by research to improve reading and spelling skills Dr. Carol Tolman

  15. Phonemes Phonemic awareness specifically focuses on individual sounds (known as phonemes) in words. Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in spoken words. / s / / u / / n / 1st phoneme 2nd phoneme 3rd phoneme

  16. Features of Consonant Sounds • Where in the mouth is the sound formed? Front, middle, back Say /p/ and /g/. • How is the sound formed? Teeth? Lips? Tongue? Say /t/ and /b/. • Is it a Continuous or Stop sound? Say /m/ and /d/. • Is it voiced or unvoiced? Voiced/ cords vibrating. Say /z/. Voiceless/ no vocal cords. Say /s/.

  17. Segment these words to find the surprise and tricky phonemes! Quilt Box Universe

  18. Back to Back Activity • Students pair up and stand back to back. • Teacher says a word. • Students each count syllables on their fingers. • On count of three turn to partner and compare answers. • All students display answers to teacher. • Let’s try it!

  19. Phonics “the alphabetic principle” mapping print to sound Grapheme - letter representing phoneme: a written symbol, letter, or combination of letters that represents a single sound

  20. We Teach Students to Match Sounds to Letters Phoneme-Grapheme Relationships: shell cheese /sh/ /e/ /l/ /ch/ /e/ /z/ p. 30

  21. Phonemic Awarenessand Phonics Phonemic Awareness ≠ Phonics • Phonemic awareness instruction helps children make the connection between letters and sounds. • During reading and spelling activities, children begin to combine their knowledge of phonological awareness and phonics.

  22. Predictability of language From Hanna, Hanna, Hodges, and Rudorf (1966): • 50 percent of words are predictable by rule. • 36 percent of words are predictable by rule with one error, usually a vowel. • 10 percent of words will be predictable with morphology and word origin taken into account. • Fewer than 4 percent are true oddities.

  23. Explicit and Systematic Instruction: Phonics • Teach frequently used letters and sounds before teaching those less frequently used. • Introduce only a few letter sound correspondences at a time. • Model and present each individual letter and its most common sound. • Begin with letter-sound correspondences that can be combined to make words children can decode, read and understand.

  24. Five Principles for Understanding Spelling and Reading We spell by: • Language of origin. • Phoneme-grapheme correspondence. (sound/symbol) • The position of a phoneme or a grapheme in a word. • Letter order and sequence patterns. • Meaning and part of speech.

  25. Language of Origin

  26. Five Principles for Understanding Spelling and Reading We spell by: • Language of origin. • Phoneme-grapheme correspondence. (sound/symbol) • The position of a phoneme or a grapheme in a word. • Letter order and sequence patterns. • Meaning and part of speech.

  27. Graphemes • A grapheme is a letter or letter pattern that corresponds to or represents a phoneme (speech sound). • Graphemes can be one, two, three, or four letters in English! Examples: 1 letter: a as in strap 2 letters: ng as in ring 3 letters: tch as in ditch 4 letters:ough as in through pp. 24-25

  28. Closer to Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z “I win because j is closer to z than c.” c j

  29. Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping

  30. Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping

  31. Word Building

  32. Five Principles for Understanding Spelling and Reading We spell by: • Language of origin. • Phoneme-grapheme correspondence. (sound/symbol) • The position of a phoneme or a grapheme in a word. • Letter order and sequence patterns. • Meaning and part of speech.

  33. “Floss Rule”

  34. Position of a Sound • Spellings for /f/: fun, half, puff, cough, graph, phone • Spellings for /ng/:ring, bang, hung = ng rink, ankle, anguish = n • Spellings for /ā/: rain, raythey, hey, whey strait, straybraid, bray • Spellings for /oi/: boil, boyTroilus, Troy avoid, annoy

  35. When do we use…… ch/tch ck/ k ge/dge

  36. Soft/Hard C & G There are 3 letters that soften c, e, i, e, i, y There are also 3 that soften g, e, i, e, i, y

  37. Five Principles for Understanding Spelling and Reading We spell by: • Language of origin. • Phoneme-grapheme correspondence. (sound/symbol) • The position of a phoneme or a grapheme in a word. • Letter order and sequence patterns. • Meaning and part of speech.

  38. Spelling Patterns • The letters h, k, y, j, v, w, x and iare almost never doubled. • The letters jandv never end words. • The letter ehas many jobs: • Represents its own sound (wet, before). • Makes another vowel long (drape, probe). • Makes c or g soft (stooge, nice). • Keeps words from looking plural (please, horse). • Keeps words from ending with v (give, love). • Some word families have unexpected long vowel sounds(Old, kind, wild words) (most)

  39. Why Teach Syllables? • To “chunk” unfamiliar words accurately and quickly:reincarnation, accomplishment • To distinguish similar words: scarred – scary ripping – ripening slimmer – slimy • To remember spelling: written, writing grapple, maple misspelled, accommodate

  40. Spoken and Written Syllables are Different Phonology (sentences) (words) * syllables * onset-Rime * phonemes Spoken language 1:1 digraphs trigraphs vowel teams blends word families Inflections syllable types roots/affixes word origin Orthography Written language

  41. Clapping vs. Duck Lips

  42. Simple Word DecodingClosed Syllables

  43. Going From One Syllable Words to Two Syllable Words • Teaching a Strategy: Chunking the word allows students to begin to understand that longer words are made up of smaller, manageable chunks or syllables. • Put the chunks on separate cards or sticky notes. • The word is magnet: + mag net

  44. Five Principles for Understanding Spelling and Reading We spell by: • Language of origin. • Phoneme-grapheme correspondence. (sound/symbol) • The position of a phoneme or a grapheme in a word. • Letter order and sequence patterns. • Meaning and part of speech.

  45. Meaning • morphemes - meaning based parts.

  46. Free and Bound Morphemes Free Morphemes Base words that stand alone without another morpheme: people, coffee A compound is two free morphemes combined into one word: daylight, firefighter Bound Morphemes Prefixes, roots, suffixes, and combining forms: un-re-pen-tent Bound morphemes must be in combination with other morphemes to make a word. They can’t stand alone.

  47. What to Teach? • Most common prefixes: in un mis dis fore re de pre a • Most common roots: duct fic fer tent tend tens mit miss cap ceit ceive cep cept cip ten tain tim sist sta stat stit pon pose pound plic ply graph ology (these roots account for more than 100,000 multisyllablic words) • Most common suffixes: hood ion ship y s es ed ing er or ible able From Henry, M. (2003). Unlocking Literacy. Baltimore, MD: Brooks Publishing Company.