group dynamics n.
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GROUP DYNAMICS. A General Model of Group Dynamics. A group is two or more persons who interact with one another that each person influenced by each other person. Definition of Groups . Classification Scheme for Types of Groups. Formal Group

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types of group

Formal Group

Are formed by the organization to do its work and usually are included in the organization chart

    • Command/Functional Group

Is a relatively permanent, formal group with functional reporting relationships.

    • Task Group

Is a relatively temporary, formal group established to do a specific task

Types of Group

Informal groups

- Established by their members

    • Friendship group
      • Relatively permanent and informal and draws its benefits from the social relationships among its members
    • Interest group
      • Relatively temporary and informal and is organized around a common activity or interest of its members
stages of group development

Mutual acceptance

    • stage of group development is characterized by members sharing information about themselves and getting to know each other.
  • Communication and Decision Making
    • Members discuss their feelings more openly and agree on group goals and individual roles in the group
Stages of Group Development

Motivation and Productivity

    • Members cooperate, help each other and work toward task accomplishment
    • Control and organization
    • Members work together and are flexible, adaptive, and self-correcting
group performance factors

Group performance factors including;

    • Composition
    • Size
    • Norms
    • Cohesiveness
      • They affect the success of the group in fulfilling its goal
Group Performance Factors

Group Composition

    • Degree of similarity or differences in the characteristics of the members on factors important to the group’s work.
      • SOURCE: Based on discussion in Bernard M. Bass and Edward C. Ryterband, Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed.

Group size

    • Number of members of the group and affects the number of resources available to perform the task
  • Group norm
    • Standard against which the appropriateness of a behavior is measured
      • Norms help the group survive
      • Norms simplify and make more predictable the behaviors expected of group members
      • Norms help the group avoid embarrassing situations
      • Norms express the central values of the group and identify the group to others

Group Cohesiveness

Factors that affect group cohesiveness

and consequences of group cohesiveness

group decision making

Group Polarization

    • Tendency for a group’s average post-discussion attitudes to be more extreme than its average pre-discussion attitudes.
  • Groupthink
    • Mode of thinking that occurs when members of a group are deeply involved in a cohesive in group and desire for unanimity offsets their motivation to appraise alternative courses of action
Group Decision Making

Participation in Decision Making

    • Important part of managing motivation, leadership, organization structure, and decision-making processes
  • Group Problem Solving
      • Brainstorming
        • Technique used in the alternative generative phase of decision making that assists in development of numerous alternative courses of action
      • Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
        • Group members follow a generate discussion vote cycle until they reach an appropriate decision.
      • The Delphi technique
        • Method of systematically gathering judgments of experts for use in developing forecasts
intergroup dynamics

Interaction among groups are based on the characteristics of the interacting groups, the organizational context within which the groups operate, and the task and situational bases of the interactions

  • Five factors that determine the nature of group interactions are;
    • Location
    • Resources
    • Time and goal interdependence
    • Task uncertainty
    • Task interdependence
Intergroup Dynamics