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Group Dynamics Group Stages and Development
Relevance to OD Click Here
Contents • Group Stages and Development • Theoretical Orientations • Integration of Theories • Examples • Application • Group 6 Reflections • Additional Resources
7 Models of Group Stages Model 1: Most well-known model, developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965
7 Models of Group Stages Tuckman’s Model Click Here
7 Models of Group Stages Model 2: Another model with elements similar to the Tuckman model developed by Wheelan(1990, 1994a)
7 Models of Group Stages Model 3: Stages of group development are compared to the major stages of life (birth, fulfillment, ascension, culmination, closure) from Albert-LorinczEniko, KatalinBarna(2013)
7 Models of Group Stages Model 4: Developed by Yalom(2005) uses Tuckman’s model as a start point to present the stages of development in psychotherapy groups. It is important to note the nuances – and comments he makes about those stages – some of which can extend to working groups.
7 Models of Group Stages Model 4: (Yalom), continued
7 Models of Group Stages Model 5: M.S. Poole views group development as “phases” versus “stages”. Instead of developing in rigid stages, groups go through continuously developing threads of activity which can be intertwined. Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_development
7 Models of Group Stages Model 6: Gersick’s “Punctuated Equilibrium” model suggests that groups experience periods of intense productivity punctuated by periods of concentrated change. The model suggests the occurrence of these period is influenced mainly by time. Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_development
7 Models of Group Stages Gersick’s Model of Punctuated Equilibrium Legend Change Periods of Stability Periods of Rapid Change Chronological Midpoint Time
7 Models of Group Stages Model 7: As an employee of Procter and Gamble, George Charrier developed the Cog’s Ladder: A Model of Group Growth (Charrier, 1972). The Cog’s model is similar to the Tuckman model with more modern language which might make the stages easier to understand and relate to.
7 Models of Group Stages Cog’s Ladder by Charrier Click Here
Overview of Theoretical Orientations Five key theoretical orientations or “lenses” can be used to view group stages and development
Overview of Theoretical Orientations Key Contributors Psychoanalytic Theory Interaction Theory Field Theory Lewin Homans Bion Psychology Theory Systems Theory Asch Luhmann
Theoretical Orientations Field Theory Field theory is a psychological theory developed by Kurt Lewin which examines patterns of interaction between the individual and the total field, or environment (Wikipedia)
Theoretical Orientations Interactive Theory The idea that social interaction is studied by looking first at the group and its activities then the personality roles within the group. The foundation of the theory rests in Field Theory and Psychology.
Theoretical Orientations Psychodynamic Theory Examines groups in terms of the interplay between deep psychological or sociological dynamics (Poole et al., 2004). Main focus is the affective and emotional side of groups.
Psychodynamic Theory Bion’s Basic Assumptions (Schermer 2000; McLeod and Kettner-Polley 2004)
Theoretical Orientations General Psychology The idea that one can apply key findings in the field of general psychology to understand how groups are formed and how individuals within that group will behave.
Theoretical Orientations Systems Theory Groups are complex, adaptive, and dynamic systems of individuals and their interactions-members->units attached via relationships
Theoretical Orientations INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Systems Approach Individual Factors Performance Outcomes Group Process Group Factors Other Outcomes Environment Factors Click Here 2-MTSU.edu
Theoretical Orientations Illustration of the connection between the theories based on the key units of analysis and how the environment, group and individual impact the theory Source: MSOD 613 Group 6 Systems Theory Environment Field Theory Psychodynamic Relationship Group Interactive Theory Click Here Psychology Individual Narrow Focus Broad Focus Task
Examples Larry has an angry outburst during the “storming” stage... #&%$!!
Examples Why did this happen to poor Larry? What are all past and present influences on Larry, including his morning coffee, the office layout and his neighbors dog’s tendency to “use” his yard? What happened so far in this meeting today is all you need to explain it. ? Field That’s Larry’s “fight” response. No one can have another point of view Interaction Larry was not hugged enough as a child. Simply an expected symptom of Stage 2: Storming Psychoanalysis Psychology Systems
Examples Get your popcorn, take a seat, and get ready to sharpen your group dynamics knowledge by watching a movie clip
Examples Thin Slicing Technique (Waller, Sohrab and Ma 2013) • Goal: Learn to recognize merging group behavior on a real time basis • Technique: • Choose 3 to 5 video-clips • Ask participants to keep in mind the group dynamic themes while they watch the clips • Show a clip and ask them to describe the behaviors they saw(no discussion while watching the clips) • Show the clips once more • Again, ask participants to identify the behaviors they saw • Engage in full discussion regarding behaviors observed: • Matching the theory or research to clip • Evaluating which answers are most suitable • Predicting what may happen next, based on what the behaviors that were observed • Discuss the most appropriate actions for the leader of the team depicted This is a fast paced visual and oral exercise!
Examples Thin Slicing Technique: Recognizing Emerging Behavior Thin Slicing Film Clips Collection (Waller, Mary J et al. 2013)
The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation™ (FIRO®) instruments help people understand their interpersonal needs and how those needs influence their communication style and behavior—and in the process improve their personal relationships and professional performance.
The FIRO assessments are based on social need theory: all living things seek equilibrium between their basic needs and getting those needs met. They address, gather, and present critical insights around these fundamental areas: • How you tend to behave toward others. • How you want others to behave toward you. • What it does: • Helps you in understanding your behavior and its effect on others. • Increases your awareness of your natural strengths and weaknesses. • Provides suggestion for improving the way in which you relate to others. • It’s an instrument for emotional intelligence awareness • Self –Awareness • Communication • Building Relationships • Conflict Management Click Here
IN THE PREVIOUS EXAMPLE TOTAL EXPRESSED AND WANTED IS LOW OVERALL IS LOW Examples Include: Low Expressed Inclusion: “I form relationships based on common interests and skills. “I’d rather “play it safe” than let other know that I want to be included.” Low Wanted Inclusion: May feel invitations are obligations. May not want to be singled out. INCLUSION Examples Include: Low Expressed Control: “I accept control from those in authority.” “I am not interested in gaining influence.” Low Wanted Control: May not want any control. May find competitive behavior annoying. CONTROL Examples Include: Low Expressed Affection: “I believe that too much self-disclosure is unprofessional.” “I know more about colleagues than they know about me.” Low Wanted Affection: May find reassurances as superficial. May become offended by personal questions. AFFECTION
So How Does FIRO Fit into Group Dynamics? It can help your group get “unstuck”. In the above example, as a leader if you know someone is LOW Expressive and Wanted, you may approach them differently to get them to participate. If you know someone is High Expressive or High Wanted, you may curtail them from participating too often. GROUP DEVELOPMENT THEORY Source: Consulting Psychologists Press