Group Dynamics • Group stages • Group roles
Forming • Testing • Emphasis on defining the tasks of the group • Look to leader for guidance and direction • Avoid controversy • Serious topics and feelings are avoided
Forming • To move on to the next stage each member must relinquish the comfort of non-threatening topics and risk conflict.
Storming • Intra-group conflict over leadership, structure, power, and authority • Competition among group members • Emotional expression
Storming • Discomfort in this stage causes some members to remain silent while others attempt to dominate • In order to move on to the next stage members must move from a “testing and proving” mentality to a problem-solving mentality.
Norming • Development of group cohesion • Establishment of individual roles in the group • Members willing to accept ideas and opinions of other members based on facts presented
Norming • Members share ideas and feelings • Members solicit and give feedback • Members feel good about being part of an effective group • Members may fear the inevitable future breakup of the group
Performing • Most productive phase • Members are highly task oriented and highly people oriented • Group identity is complete • Group morale is high • Emphasis on achievement
Performing • Functional stage • Not reached by all groups • Interdependence • Roles and authorities adjust to changing needs
Adjourning • Disengagement from relationships • Often includes recognition for participation and achievement • Members able to say personal goodbyes
Adjourning • May create apprehension • Members give up inclusion in group • Need strategies that facilitate task termination and disengagement • Tuckman, B (1965, 1977)
Roles of Group Members • Two types of roles • Task roles • Function roles
Initiator • Introduces new ideas or procedures • tries to establish movement toward goals
Information Seeker • Gets information or opinions • Identifies gaps in information
Evaluator • Tries to determine where the group stands • Tests for consensus • Evaluates progress
Coordinator • Points out relationships among ideas • Pulls ideas together • Builds on work of others • Takes things one step further
Procedural Technician • Expedites the group • works by performing routine tasks and distributing materials
Recorder • Writes down ideas, recommendations and decisions • keeps minutes
Encourager • Offers support to another’s contribution • accepts what members say
Harmonizer • Mediates the differences among members • Attempts to reconcile differences
Compromiser • Seeks middle position
Standard Setter • Tries to bring to awareness the norms and standards of the group
Gate Keeper • Keeps communication channels open • Facilitates participation of all members • Keeps track of time.
Aggressor • Deflates the status of others • Attacks the group, its individual members or the task • Displays envy toward the contributions of others by taking credit for thembbb
Blocker • Negative, stubborn opposer who reintroduces issues that have been previously decided upon
Recognition Seeker • Works in myriad ways to call attention to self • Boastful and self-centered
Playboy • Displays lack of interest by being cynical or humorous on important issues
Dominator • Asserts authority or superiority over others by manipulating the group • Flatters, interrupts, or gives authoritative directions
Application • Think about your current group. • What is your role in the group? • How do you think other members see you? • Characterize the other group members in the roles you believe they assume.
Help Seekers • Calls attention to self and seeks a sympathetic response from the group