World War II. 1939 – 1945 Chapter 31 section 4 Chapter 32. World War II. CAUSES German Aggression in Europe Unstable Governments Rise of Fascism Failure of League of Nations Appeasement. World War II. German Aggression Hitler Defies the Treaty of Versailles
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1939 – 1945
Chapter 31 section 4
1935 Hitler announced Germany would not follow the conditions set by the treaty
Germany began to rebuild its military
League of Nations issued a mild condemnation
League could not stop German rearming
Third Reich – German Empire
Hitler planned to annex Austria & Czechoslovakia
Treaty of Versailles forbade an alliance between Germany & Austria-Hungary
1938 – Hitler’s army took control of Austria
Hitler demanded control of
of the Sudetenland
Many of the region
France & Gr. Britain met and decided that Hitler could take Sudetenland for the promise to respect the borders of Czechoslovakia
Six months later
Hitler took control
German – Russian Non Aggression Pact
agreement with Russia
but secretly they agreed
to divide Poland.
beginning of WW II
France & Gr. Britain stationed troops along the French/ German border in a defensive position, believing Germany would attack. The German soldiers just stared back.
They remained there for months with no military action taken – “sitzkrieg”
Ended when Hitler launched a surprise attack on Denmark & Norway.
BATTLE FOR FRANCE AND BRITAIN
a port city on the English Channel
lifeboats, motorboats, fishing
boats to save the Allied troops.
Fall of France
Italy joined Germany in war against France
- attacked from the south
- Germany took Paris
- French leader, Charles de Gualle, exiled to London setting up a government in exile.
- Established Free French Forces that fought the Nazi until French liberation in 1944.
Germany Assaults Great Britain
Great Britain stood ALONE against Germany
Winston Churchill, Prime Minister declared that Britain would NEVER give in to Germany.
surely from this period of ten months this is the lesson: never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never-in nothing, great or small, large or petty - never give in except to convictions of honour and good sense. Never yield to force; never yield to the apparently overwhelming might of the enemy. We stood all alone a year ago, and to many countries it seemed that our account was closed, we were finished. All this tradition of ours, our songs, our School history, this part of the history of this country, were gone and finished and liquidated.
September 7, 1940
Britain resisted until May 10, 1941 and Hitler called off his attacks.
Britain’s Secret Weapons
Radar – detected number, speed & direction of incoming planes
Enigma – German code machine in the hands of Britain became a code breaking machine.
Germany called off attacks on Britain in May 1941.
The Germans were stopped by the Allies!
Because of the success of Britain, Hitler changed his European strategy.
Mediterranean Area: Sept. 1940-
Mussolini orders Italy’s North African army to move East
from Libya. His goal: seize British-controlled Egypt and gain control of the Suez Canal (key to reaching the oil fields of the Middle East). Italy pushed the British units back. Finally in December, the British struck back. By Feb. 1941, the British swept 500 miles across North Africa and had taken 130,000 Italian prisoners.
Hitler had to step in to save his Axis partner…Italy.
Feb. 1941: Hitler sent German tank commander Erwin Rommel (“Desert Fox”) was sent to help the Italians defeat the British in Africa.
March 24th: He attacked the British at Agheila. The British retreated 500 miles east to Tobruk.
Mid-January 1942: after fierce fighting for Tobruk, the British drove Rommel back to where he had started.
June 1942: Rommel regrouped and pushed the British back across the desert and seized Tobruk.
This was a shattering loss for the Allies. Rommel later wrote, “To every man of us, Tobruk was a symbol of British resistance, and we were now going to finish with it for good.”
As early as the summer of 1940: Hitler plans to attack his ally, the USSR. The key to Hitler’s invasion plan was taking the Balkan countries of southeastern Europe.
Germany Invades the Soviet Union
Sept. 8th: Germans surround Leningrad
Dec. 8, 1941
Memorial over the U.S.S. Arizona
“…we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain…”
Japan becomes a strong industrial nation! It expands to build up nationalism.
*Invaded China in 1931
After Pearl Harbor Japan took and or
Wake Island Sumatra
Island of Corregidor
Hong Kong Celebes
Singapore Burma Road
Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)
Allies Strikes Back
Allied forces led by led by Lt. Col. Doolittle.
- bombed major Japanese cities
- not much physical damage but the Japanese understood they were subject to attack
-raised American morale
Coral Sea – Japan & the Allies used aircraft carriers for the first time. The Allies lost more ships but stopped the Japanese southward expansion.
Battle of Midway – Japanese target because of American military bases located there. Pacific Allied commander Chester Nimitz was outnumbered by Japanese naval forced 4 to 1. Japanese ships were attacked destroying 322 Japanese planes, all four aircraft carriers, and one support ship.
One Japanese official commented: “The Americans had avenged Pearl Harbor.”
Additional Allied Victories
Gen. Douglas MacArthur
For generations, many Germans, along with other Europeans, had targeted the Jews as the cause of their failures.
DEATHS Jews Killed % Survived
Poland 3,300,000 10
Soviet Union 2,850,000 56
Hungary 650,000 30
Romania 600,000 50
Germany/Austria 240,000 10
where they cut off supplies.
Germans wanted to surrender.
Hitler said, “No!” German soldiers
D-Day Invasion of France
* Largest military invasion in history
* 3.5 Million Allied troops – Operation Overlord
*Dummy army set up at Calais
*Germans protected by concrete walls
*Thousands of casualties
*Allies held the beach
*A million additional troops
Battle of the Bulge
Soviets from the east
Allies from the west
Germans broke through western defenses creating a bulge in the defensive line
Allies pushed back the Germans and defeated them
Soon afterward Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered.
The Manhattan Project:
Bombing of Nagasaki & Hiroshima
After the loss of many Allied lives
in battle with Japan, the decision
was made to bomb Japan rather
than suffer the loss of perhaps
another ½ to a million soldiers
8/6/45 - The first Atomic Bomb was
dropped on Hiroshima with the loss
of 73,000 lives – Japan did not surrender
8/9/1945 – The second bomb was
dropped on Nagasaki.