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Leading Change. Madeleine F Green Senior Fellow International Association of Universities 10 July 2012. Today’s Topics. A framework for change Dilemmas of change Factors shaping change Steps in the change process The role of the leader. Framework for Change. Shallow Depth Deep Narrow

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leading change

Leading Change

Madeleine F Green

Senior Fellow

International Association of Universities

10 July 2012

today s topics
Today’s Topics
  • A framework for change
  • Dilemmas of change
  • Factors shaping change
  • Steps in the change process
  • The role of the leader

Framework for Change



Adjustments Isolated Change

(I) (II)


Far-Reaching Transformational

Broad (III) (IV)

  • Alters the culture of the institution
  • Is deep and pervasive (systemic)
  • Is intentional
  • Occurs over time
  • Requires leadership and collaboration
  • Requires ownership

©Madeleine F Green 2012

the impact institutional
THE IMPACT (Institutional)
  • Institutional culture
  • Institutional strategy
  • Allocation of resources
  • Structures, policies and procedures
  • Reward system

©Madeleine F Green 2012

the impact individual
THE IMPACT (Individual)
  • Individual values, beliefs, expectations
  • Individual actions (how one approaches and does one’s work)

©Madeleine F Green 2012

institutional culture
Institutional Culture
  • “The deeply embedded patterns of organizational behavior and the shared values, assumptions, beliefs or ideologies that members have about their organization or its work.” (Peterson & Spencer, 1991)
  • It’s the way we do things around here and what we believe.
  • The “invisible glue” that holds an institution together.
conceptualizations of culture
Conceptualizations of Culture






Schein (1992)

dilemmas of change
Dilemmas of Change
  • How much pressure is needed? Desirable?
  • Big bang or stealth?
  • At what speed?
  • Meeting whose expectations?
  • Who participates in which decisions and how much?
factors shaping the change process
Factors Shaping the Change Process
  • External pressure (legal framework, political forces, students, council/governing board, competition)
  • Internal conditions
    • Level of recognition of need for change
    • Institutional history with change
    • Institutional interests, politics
steps in the change process
Steps in the Change Process
  • Establishing a sense of urgency
  • Creating the guiding coalition
  • Developing (collaboratively) a vision and strategy
  • Communicating the change vision
  • Empowering broad-based action
  • Generating short-term wins
  • Consolidating change and producing more change
  • Anchoring new approaches in the culture

(John Kotter, 1996)

1 urgency
1. Urgency
  • People need to be convinced that change is necessary (demands, competition, quality)
  • Address complacency
  • Leader has to manage anxiety about future
  • Avoid blame
  • Create deadlines
2 guiding coalition
2. Guiding Coalition
  • Buy-in and participation start right at the beginning
  • Need the “right” people on the team
  • Choice of team leaders crucial
  • Team development
3 create a vision and strategy
3. Create a vision and strategy
  • Effective vision
    • Imaginable
    • Desirable
    • Feasible
    • Focused
    • Flexible
    • Communicable
    • Based on values and principles
  • Leader’s Role: Help people think differently
    • Outsiders’ perspectives
    • Campus conversations
3 strategy
3. Strategy
  • General lines of action of how a vision can be accomplished
    • Adding new academic programs
    • Computerizing student registration
    • Developing staff training
4 communicating the change vision
4. Communicating the Change Vision
  • Not just one-way; engage people in crafting the vision and strategies.
  • Effective communication of a vision
    • Simple (jargon-free)
    • Use examples
    • Multiple forums
    • Repetition
    • Leadership by example
    • Address inconsistencies
5 empowering broad based action
5. Empowering Broad-Based Action
  • Identifying and addressing obstacles
    • Institutional obstacles to change (bureaucracy, systems, policies, traditions, structures)
    • Individual obstacles to change (fear, complacency, arrogance, insularity, competence)
    • Dealing with conflict
  • Providing necessary professional development
  • Creating momentum
  • Creating incentives
6 generating short term wins
6. Generating Short-Term Wins
  • Strategy should include some “low-hanging fruits” that serve as milestones
  • Celebrate success along the way
  • Reward people who made the wins possible
7 consolidating gains and producing more change
7. Consolidating Gains and Producing More Change
  • Change produces need for more change (change one system, others need to follow suit
  • Mid-stream: hard to see success from the middle (importance of milestones, specific “wins”
  • Continued staff development; shaping the culture with new hires
8 anchoring new approaches in the culture
8. Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture
  • Deep change is a long distance run
  • Cultural change is a slow, cumulative process, after new behaviors produce visible benefit
  • May require staff turnover
  • Evidence-based change: of need for change and of positive results.
roles of change leaders
Roles of Change Leaders
  • Diagnose needed change
  • Create a sense of urgency
  • Manage anxiety that accompanies change
  • Anthropologist (student of culture)
  • Team leader
  • Identify and address obstacles
  • Get conflict out in the open, deal with it
  • Communicator
  • Educator/Staff developer