World War I The Americans, Chapter 11
CAUSES OF WWI 1. Name the four causes of World War I. • NATIONALISM-devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation • IMPERIALISM- extending economic and political control over weaker territories • MILITARISM-development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy • ALLIANCE SYSTEM- countries backed each other in case of attack
2. Who made up the Allied powers? 3. Who made up the Central Powers? • 2 major alliances: • The Triple Entente (later known as the Allies. Consisted of France, Britain and Russia) • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. • Eventually they had the Central Powers: which consisted of Germany, Austria Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
An Assassination Leads To War 4. What event started World War I? On the morning of June 28, 1914, while traveling in a motorcade through Sarajevo, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated by Serbian Nationalist Gavrilo Princip. Franz Ferdinand Gavrilo Princip
I KNEW THESE ALLIANCES WERE A BAD IDEA!!! 5. Why were so many countries involved in WWI? • The alliance system pulled one nation after another into the conflict • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia • Germany declared war on Russia • Germany declared war on France • Britain declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary • THE GREAT WAR HAD BEGUN!
Problems with Neutrality 6. What was Germany’s reason for sinking the Lusitania? • The actions of Germany as they invaded Belgium were reported in brutal detail by the American Press and in propaganda. • The sinking of the Lusitania in 1915 cost American lives. Germany accused the Lusitania of carrying war supplies. • Wilson received assurances from Kaiser Wilhelm that this would not happen again, but . . . • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sURi21sJsWc&feature=player_detailpage
Reasons for US Involvement in WWI 7. What were the two main reasons the U.S. declared war on Germany? • Over the next two years, German U-boats sunk other ships with Americans on board. • Early in 1917, Germany sent the intercepted Zimmerman telegram hoping to persuade our friend, Mexico to attack us. • But it was the German announcement that they were launching “unrestricted submarine warfare” that forced Wilson to take us to war.
8. How did the U.S. combat the problem with German U-Boats? • Group of merchant ships traveling together with warships for safety.
America Mobilizes for War in 1917 9. Name two ways the U.S. mobilized for World War I? • Wilson told Americans that we would fight “to make the world safe for democracy.” • Congress passed a draft law (the Selective Service Act) and over 4 million Americans would serve in WWI. • The War Industries Board helped convert factories to wartime production.
On the Homefront . . . 10.What was the Great Migration? • The Food and Fuel Administrations and the Creel Committee inspired the public to sacrifice to preserve scarce resources. • “Liberty Bond” drives raised $23 billion dollars for the war effort. • Many Americans migrated to cities during World War I to work in defense factories. • In the “Great Migration,” 500,000 African Americans moved from the South to the North and Midwest
Espionage and Sedition Acts 11. What were the Espionage and Sedition Acts? • A person could be fined up to 10,000 and sentenced to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war effort or for saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive about the government or the war effort. (Doesn’t that violate the first amendment?)
Over There . . . 12. What were some advances in weaponry during WWI? • American “dough boys” helped to swing the war in favor of the Allies • WWI is known for many advances in weaponry: • Machine guns • Long-range artillery • Flame throwers • Poison gas • Airplanes for surveillance
Armistice - 1918 13. When did World War I end? • Germany was so worn down by the length of the war and the strength of the Allies that they surrendered on November 11th @ 11:00 am (now Veteran’s Day). 11/11/18 • Americans had contributed mightily to the victory, losing 60,000 lives and contributing 23 billion dollars (total war dead = 8 million).
Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points 14. What were Wilson’s Fourteen Points? • In a speech to Congress in January of 1918 Wilson had laid out his goals for the peace treaty to be written when the war ended. • Wilson wanted the creation of a general association of nations – this organization would provide a forum for addressing future international problems and maintaining world peace.
The Treaty of Versailles 15. What did the Treaty of Versailles make Germany do? • The peace treaty at the Palace of Versailles in France, the European Allies sought to gain territory for themselves and to punish Germany and make them pay for the war. • The treaty was quite disappointing although Wilson was pleased that it called for a League of Nations to be set up, as he had recommended in his Fourteen Points.
The Senate Fight over the Treaty 16. Why did the U.S. not want to join the League of Nations? • The Senate would have to ratify the Treaty of Versailles in order for the U.S. to sign it. • They argued over many of its provisions, but the most controversial one was the creation of the League of Nations. Many thought that U.S. membership would drag us into future wars. • Despite the president’s urgings, the Senate never ratified the treaty. We never joined the League of Nations. This is an example of the constitutional principle of ________ and ___________. (checks and balances)
Other Issues Raised by WWI • Internationally, the U.S. wanted to return to a policy of isolationism. • Domestically, post-war housing and job shortages led to economic pressures. • The Great Migration led to increased racial tension in mid-western cities. • Minorities hoped for greater equality after the war, but were disappointed. • The war is believed to have sped up the passage of the 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote.