The immune system
Download
1 / 19

The Immune System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 74 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Immune System. Pathogens. Defined: microorganisms that cause disease Viruses : turn cells into virus making factories. Pathogens. Defined: microorganisms that cause disease Viruses : turn cells into virus making factories Bacteria : prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Immune System' - lakia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Pathogens
Pathogens

  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease

    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories


Pathogens1
Pathogens

  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease

    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories

    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals


Pathogens2
Pathogens

  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease

    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories

    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals

    • Fungi: pierce cells and absorb the nutrients


Pathogens3
Pathogens

  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease

    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories

    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals

    • Fungi: pierce cells and absorb the nutrients

    • Protozoans: single cells protista (eukaryotes)

Plasmodium causes malaria


Pathogens4
Pathogens

  • Defined: microorganisms that cause disease

    • Viruses: turn cells into virus making factories

    • Bacteria: prokaryotes that can release toxic chemicals

    • Fungi: pierce cells and absorb the nutrients

    • Protozoans: single cells. Protists (eukaryotes)

    • Parasites: grow and feed on a host

tapeworms


Transmission
Transmission

  • Some carried by wind, water, direct contact, indirect contact…

  • Vectors: organism that carries a pathogen

    Examples:

    • Malaria – mosquitos carry the protozoan

    • Black Death – carried by fleas of mice

    • West Nile Virus – carried by birds, but spread by mosquitoes


The skin
The Skin

  • 1st line of defense: physical barrier

  • Oils & sweat destroy some pathogens

    • Some pathogens burst…some shrivel

bacteria

bacteria

Skin


Mucus membranes
Mucus Membranes

  • Coat the openings of the body

    • Nose, mouth, ears, eyes, genitals, anus

  • Lined with cilia & sticky fluids to trap pathogens


  • White blood cells

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (phagocytes) from the BBC

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (lymphocytes) from the BBC

    White Blood Cells

    • Job: Search & destroy


    White blood cells1

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (phagocytes) from the BBC

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (lymphocytes) from the BBC

    White Blood Cells

    • Job: Search & destroy

    • Type 1: Phagocytes

      • surround & engulf invaders by phagocytosis


    White blood cells2

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (phagocytes) from the BBC

    YouTube Clip: Types of White Blood Cells (lymphocytes) from the BBC

    White Blood Cells

    • Job: Search & destroy

    • Type 1: Phagocytes

      • surround & engulf invaders by phagocytosis

    • Type 2: Lymphocytes

      • create antibodies & destroy infected body cells


    The immune system

    phagocyte the BBC

    Blood

    stream

    bacteria

    phagocyte


    Defense proteins
    Defense Proteins the BBC

    • Antibodies

      • Created & released by lymphocytes

      • Attach to antigens (like handcuffs)

    antibody

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    lymphocyte

    Y

    Y

    Y


    Defense proteins1
    Defense Proteins the BBC

    • Antibodies

      • Created & released by lymphocytes

      • Attach to antigens (like handcuffs)

    • How do they kill?

      • Causes pathogens to clump

      • Weakens the cell membrane of the pathogen


    The immune system

    B CELLS MAKE ANTIBODIES the BBC

    ANTIBODIES ATTACH TO ANTIGENS OF THE PATHOGEN

    Blood

    Stream

    B

    B

    B

    B

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    phagocyte

    Y

    Y

    Y

    B

    B

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    Y

    ANTIBODIES CAUSE THE PATHOGENS TO CLUMP TOGETHER

    PHAGOCYTE DESTROYS PATHOGENS


    The immune system

    Defense Proteins the BBC

    virus

    Virus RNA

    New virus

    New virus

    New virus

    New virus

    Interferon

    Interferon

    Interferon

    New virus

    Infected!

    Not Infected!

    • Interferon

      • Cell becomes infected by virus

      • Infected cell sends interferon to healthy neighbors

      • Interferon causes healthy cell to create defense enzymes

      • Healthy cell able to fight virus


    Vaccination
    Vaccination the BBC

    • Prevents infections (not a cure)

    • Vaccination process

      • Weakened pathogen is injected

      • Immune system produces…

        • Antibodies to fight the weakened pathogen

        • Memory cells for future infections

    • Goal: Speed up immune response if you encounter the actual virus


    Review
    Review the BBC

    • Which part of our immune system coats the openings of the body?

    • How do lymphocytes differ from phagocytes?

    • What are antibodies and how do they help keep us from harm?

    • Which pathogen…

      absorbs nutrients from living tissue?

      are prokaryotic?

    • Which illness is spread by mice?

    • What is the vector of malaria?