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The Cold War

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  1. The Cold War

  2. The Cold War • What to expect during this unit • To learn about the events during and after World War II • that led to the Cold War • To learn about the “Players” of the Cold War • To learn about how the Cold War affected American Society • DBQ Practice • Plenty of group work • Maybe a surprise quiz or two • Unit Assessment

  3. K-W-L Korean War - TTYN What I Know about the Korean War What I Learned about The Korean War What I Want to Learn about The Korean War

  4. TTYN: What is Patriotism?

  5. National Archives Museum

  6. Freedom Train

  7. The Cold War • Significant Side Effects • Alienated black Americans • FBI began compiling reports on those who found the train objectionable • Fueled anticommunism sentiments • Goal of the Train • Revealed a popular hunger for tangible evidence of American freedom • Contrast American freedom with the destruction of liberty by the Hitler tyranny After leaving the train, visitors were encouraged to rededicate themselves to American values by taking the Freedom Pledge and adding their names to a Freedom Scroll

  8. I will vote at all elections, I will inform myself on candidates and issues and will use my greatest influence to see that honest and capable officials are elected. • I will accept public office when I can serve my community or my country thereby. • I will serve on a jury when asked. • I will respect and obey the laws. I will assist public officials in preventing crime and the courts in giving evidence. • I will pay my taxes understanding (if not cheerfully).

  9. I will vote at all elections, I will inform myself on candidates and issues and will use my greatest influence to see that honest and capable officials are elected. • I will accept public office when I can serve my community or my country thereby. • I will serve on a jury when asked. • I will respect and obey the laws. I will assist public officials in preventing crime and the courts in giving evidence. • I will pay my taxes understanding (if not cheerfully).

  10. The Cold War The Yalta and Potsdam Conference Yalta Conference As discussed during our unit on WWII, the Yalta Conference was held during the war, on the surface, the Yalta conference seemed successful.  Each party involved in the Conference (The Allies) agreed to: • Divide Germany into four ‘zones’, which Britain, France, the USA and the USSR would occupy after the war. • Bring Nazi war-criminals to trial. • Set up a Polish Provisional Government of National Unity 'pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon as possible • Help the freed peoples of Europe set up democratic and self-governing countries • Set up a commission to look into reparations

  11. The Cold War The Yalta and Potsdam Conference Yalta Conference The Yalta, the negotiations went very much in Stalin's favor, but this was because Roosevelt wanted Russian help in the Pacific, and was prepared to agree to almost anything as long as Stalin agreed to go to war with Japan.  Stalin promised that: • Russia would join the war in the Pacific, in return for occupation zones in North Korea and Manchuria. • Russia also agreed to join the United Nations. • Tension was growing, particularly about reparations, and about Poland. 

  12. The Cold War The Yalta and Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference – July, 1945 At Potsdam (Berlin), the Allies met after the surrender of Germany (May 1945) to finalize the details of the post-war peace – Potsdam was the Versailles of World War II.  There were several factors that deemed the Potsdam Conference unsuccessful: • 1.) Relations between the superpowers had worsened considerably since Yalta.  • 2.)Meanwhile, Roosevelt had died, • 3.) Truman’s “get tough” motto • 4.) The Atomic Bomb Advantage and little need for Stalin

  13. The Cold War The Yalta and Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference The Conference agreed to the following:  • To set up the four ‘zones of occupation’ in Germany.   The Nazi Party, government and laws were to be destroyed, and 'German education shall be so controlled as completely to eliminate Nazi and militarist doctrines and to make possible the successful development of democratic ideas. • To bring Nazi war-criminals to trial. • To recognize the Polish Provisional Government of National Unity and hold free and unfettered elections as soon as possible.

  14. The Cold War The Yalta and Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference Russia was allowed to take reparations from the Soviet Zone, and also 10% of the industrial equipment of the western zones as reparations.  America and Britain could take reparations from their zones if they wished. President Truman presented it as a compromise, but in fact, the Allies disagreed openly about the following issues:  1.  The details of how to divide Germany. 2.  The size of reparations Germany ought to pay. 3.  Russian influence over the countries of eastern Europe.

  15. The Cold War The War of Words "It is part of my responsibility as Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces to see to it that our country is able to defend itself against any possible aggressor. Accordingly, I have directed the Atomic Energy Commission to continue its work on all forms of atomic weapons, including the so-called hydrogen or super-bomb.“ – Truman • TTYN – Describe Truman’s message and the impact that it may or may not have

  16. The Cold War The War of Words • "I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma; but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest.“ – Churchill • TTYN – Describe Churchill’s message and his impression of Russia’s goal regarding exerting its influence in Europe

  17. The Cold War The War of Words “The Soviet Union has become a danger to the free world. A new front must be created against her onward sweep. This front in Europe should be as far East as possible….. A settlement must be reached on all major issues between the West and East in Europe before the armies of democracy melt.” – Churchill TTYN – What is Churchill advocating with this statement? “If any foreign minister begins to defend to the death a "peace conference," you can be sure his government has already placed its orders for new battleships and airplanes.” – Stalin TTYN – Describe Stalin’s interpretation on the results of the Potsdam Conference

  18. Truman Doctrine and Containment The Origins Of The Cold War • The Two Powers • U.S. emerges from WWII as the world’s greatest power • World’s most powerful navy and air force • U.S. accounted for half the world’s manufacturing capacity • It alone possessed the atomic bomb • Soviet Union, the only power that in any way could rival the United States • Like the U.S., the Soviets looked forward to a world order modeled on their own society and values

  19. Truman Doctrine and Containment • Despite the huge loses during the war (over 20 million dead and vast destruction to infrastructure), the Soviet government remained determined to establish a sphere of influence in eastern Europe. • Long Telegram, which stated that the Soviets could not be dealt with as a normal government – laid the foundation for what became known as the policy of containment. • Communist ideology drove them to expand

  20. Truman Doctrine and Containment • Winston Churchill – “an ‘iron curtain’ had descended across Europe, partitioning the free West from the communist East” • Truman Doctrine • Convinced that Stalin could not be trusted • Britain could not longer afford its traditional international role • Greece and Turkey • Need to “care hell” out of the American people to gain support • The defense of freedom – As the leader of the “free world,” the U.S. must now shoulder the responsibility of supporting “freedom-loving people” wherever communism threatened them

  21. The Cold War The Long Telegram February, 1946

  22. George Marshall Marshall Plan

  23. K-W-L Korean War - TTYN What I Know about the Korean War What I Learned about The Korean War What I Want to Learn about The Korean War

  24. Marshall Plan • Secretary of State George C. Marshall • Pledged the U.S. to contribute billions to finance the economic recovery of Europe • A positive vision to go along with containment • Combat the idea that capitalism was in decline and communism the wave of the future • Defined the threat to American security • Soviet power • And economic and political instability

  25. Marshall Plan • “Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” – G. Marshall • In essence, the Marshall Plan envisioned a New Deal for Europe • “Prosperity Makes Your Free” • Plan was a success • By 1950, western European production exceeded pre-war levels • Stimulated free trade • Reconstruction of Japan

  26. The Cold War TTYN – Answer the questions that follow in complete sentences (Refer to Notes Packet) In his March 12, 1947 address, President Truman stated: "At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic stability and orderly political process." March 12, 1947 address, President Truman "What will happen if we do not provide adequate funds and commodities for subsistence and reconstruction abroad? This, I think, is hardly questionable: what if adequate help from the United States is not forthcoming, many of our allies in the late war ... will be obliged in the months to come to cease imports of food and reconstruction material. Should this happen, human want, economic collapse, political crisis, collapse of democratic institutions, growth of extremism, and perhaps loss of independence would in many countries quickly follow. Our hopes for peace and prosperity would quickly vanish. We would live in unprecedented isolation. We would live in growing poverty. We would live in growing fear." Secretary of State, George C. Marshall

  27. Discussion Questions 1. How much aid was given through the Marshall Plan? 2. Who received the money and what was the money used for? 3. What reasons are given for providing this financial aid? 4. What would happen if the aid was not given? 5. Look at all the reasons given for providing aid. Which reason do you think was the most important to the United States government at that time and why? 6. To what extent did the Marshall Plan affect the Cold War? 7. How did the Marshall Plan mark a change in American foreign policy in the 20th century?

  28. Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan

  29. The Two Germany’s Partition of Germany • 4 victorious powers assumed control of occupied Germany • Berlin located in the Soviet zone • Soviets cut off road and rail traffic • Diplomacy failed • Ground invasions planned and WWIII on the brink

  30. The Two Germany’s Partition of Germany • Western planes supplying fuel and food to their zone of Berlin • Truman - “We will not abandon these people” • Feel-good story - 1st Lt. Gail S. Halvorsen, "Uncle Wiggly Wings', "The Chocolate Uncle" and "The Chocolate Flier“ • The Airlift - resulted with the construction of the Berlin Wall • 1949, Soviets tested their first atomic bomb • U.S., Canada, and 10 western European nations established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – pledging mutual defense against any future Soviet attack

  31. The Cold War The Cold War The Two Germany’s Berlin Blockade and Airlift

  32. The Cold War The Cold War The Two Germany’s Berlin Blockade and Airlift

  33. China • 1949, communists led by Mao Zedong emerged victorious in the long Chinese civil war • Setback for the policy of containment • Truman administration refused to recognize the new Chinese government. • Blocked China from occupying a seat at the U.N.

  34. China • China + Soviet atomic bomb = a permanent military buildup to enable the U.S. to pursue a global crusade against communism • NSC-68 – and epic struggle between “the idea of freedom” and the “idea of slavery under the grim oligarchy of the Kremlin.” • “The survival of the free world”

  35. Korea • After war, Korea divided into Soviet • and American zones • Asia turns hot • 1950, N. Korea invades So. Korea, • hoping to unify the country under • communist control • Korea viewed as a clear test of the policy of containment • Congress approves the use of force • 1950, Inchon

  36. Korea • China drives UN forces back • MacArthur seeks authority to invade China • Use of nuclear weapons discussed • War results into a stalemate • 38th parallel • 1953 armistice • There has never been a formal peace • treaty ending the Korean War • Over 33K American’s died • 1M Korean and 2M civilians

  37. Trouble at Home Cultural Cold War • “Militant Liberty” national security agencies encouraged Hollywood to produce anticommunist movies • Urged film scripts be changed to remove references to ;less-than praiseworthy aspects of American history, such as Indian removal and racial discrimination

  38. Trouble at Home Cultural Cold War • CIA and Defense Dept emerge as patrons of the arts • Gov’t financed artistic works – but it remained top –secret • Soviet Union does the same. Ballet anyone? • Jackson Pollock, Museum of Modern Art – demonstrated free, individual expression denied to artist in communist countries

  39. K-W-L Korean War - TTYN What I Know about the Korean War What I Learned about The Korean War What I Want to Learn about The Korean War

  40. Trouble at Home • The Anticommunist Crusade • As a result of the Cold War, the U.S. would maintain a large and active federal gov’t • Poured money into weapons and overseas bases • New national highway system – need to evacuate major cities in the event of nuclear war • Cold War encouraged a culture of • secrecy and dishonesty

  41. HUAC • Loyalty and Disloyalty • Those who could be linked to communism • enemies of freedom • Assault on Civil Liberties: McCarthyism • Senator Joe McCarthy

  42. HUAC • Loyalty and Disloyalty • HUAC – House Un-American Activities Committee • Communist influence in Hollywood • Screenwriters, directors, and actors appear before the committee. • 10 (Hollywood 10) refused to answer questions regarding their political beliefs. • Charged with contempt of Congress; served jail terms of six months • Blacklisted • Spy Trials • Rosenberg’s; convicted of conspiracy to pass secrets concerning the atomic bomb to Soviet agents • Judge Kaufman “worse than murder” • Death sentence carried out in 1953

  43. “McCarthyism” • 1950, Wheeling W.Va., McCarthy Announced that he had a list of 205 communists working for the State Dept. • Never identified a single person • Used the Senate to hold hearings and level wild charges against numerous individuals as well as the Defense Dept. • Republican support – a weapon against the Truman Admin. Small Group Activity Denis v. United States Refer to notes packet

  44. Hollywood Ten Ethel and Julius Rosenberg

  45. C.S.I. The Rosenberg Case Mr. Giesler Global Studies

  46. CASE FILE The Rosenberg Trial is the sum of many stories: a story of betrayal, a love story, a spy story, a story of a family torn apart, a story of government overreaching, and the story of a particular time: The Cold War The Rosenberg Case CLASSIFIED

  47. Activity Directions • Work Cooperatively • Read each document thoroughly • Use your Think Marks • Complete handout - “Detective Log” • Complete handout - “Questions to Consider” • Individually, complete a one-page summary • Have Fun!!!

  48. Detective Log

  49. Document A Refer to Primary Source Packet “NEVER RED SPY, ROSENBERG SAYS AT A-BOMB TRIAL” Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963); Mar 22, 1951; Chicago Tribune (1849 - 1988)