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Essential Question:

Essential Question:

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  1. Essential Question: • What were the significant individuals & accomplishments of the Civil Rights movement? • Warm-Up Question: • Consider the 300 years between 1650-1950; Identify two continuities & two changes regarding African-Americans in the United States

  2. African-Americans & Civil Rights: Change Over Time Analysis • Students will form groups of 3 • Eachgroupwillrespondtoprompts regarding African-Americans • Groups will earn points per correct answer OR 0 points foranyincorrectanswereachround • The winning group earns a 105, other groups earn 100, 95, 90, etc.

  3. Turning Points in Black History • Why is each year a “turning point” for African-Americans • 1619 • 1787 • 1793 • 1808 • 1863 • 1877

  4. Turning Points in Black History • 1619—the introduction of the first slaves in the American colonies • 1787—NW Ordinance banned slavery in these territories • 1793—cotton gin accelerated the spread of cotton & slave system • 1808: end of Atlantic slave trade • 1863: Emancipation Proclamation • 1877—the 2nd Corrupt Bargain brought an end to Reconstruction

  5. Key Events in Black History • Identify effects of the American Revolution on slavery

  6. Turning Points in Black History • Inspired contradiction regarding “liberty” against Britain vs. slavery • Many slave owners “manumitted” their slaves • Many Northern states abolished slavery by state constitution • Numerous anti-slave societies were formed (but remained a minority voice until 1830s)

  7. Key Events in Black History • Identify slave uprisings in American history

  8. Turning Points in Black History • Colonial: • NY city uprising (1712) & the Stono Rebellion in SC (1739) • Antebellum: • Gabriel Prosser in VA (1800) & Denmark Vesey in SC (1822) were foiled before they occurred • Nat Turner in VA (1831) led the bloodiest slave uprising ever • John Brown in VA (1859) became a Civil War martyr

  9. Key Events in Black History • Identify Supreme Court cases that impacted African-Americans

  10. Turning Points in Black History • Dred Scott v Sanford (1857)—blacks are not citizens & declared Missouri Comp unconstitutional • Plessy v Ferguson (1896)—segregation is constitutional when “separate” facilities are “equal” • Brown v Board of Edu (1954)—overturned “separate but equal” in American public schools

  11. Key Events in Black History • Identify events in which slavery caused sectional problems prior to the Civil War

  12. Turning Points in Black History • Constitution: no mention of slavery until 1808 & the 3/5 compromise • Reform societies (Garrison) & parties (Liberty & Free Soil) • Compromises of 1820 & 1850 • Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 (pop sov) • Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) • Literature: Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Stowe) & Impending Crisis of South (Helper) • John Brown’s Raid at Harper’s Ferry • LincolnasRepublicannominee(1860)

  13. Key Events in Black History • Name the Reconstruction Amendments & what each did for African-Americans

  14. Turning Points in Black History • 13th Amendment ended slavery • 14th Amendment guaranteed citizenship regardless race & the protection against discrimination • 15th Amendment gave forbade racial discrimination in voting

  15. Key Events in Black History • Identify specific ways African-Americans were protected by the federal government during Reconstruction (1865-1877)

  16. Turning Points in Black History • Freedman’s Bureau (1865) • Civil Rights Acts (1866; 1875) • Andrew Johnson’s Plan (1865-1867) forced states to ratify the 13th Amnd, but did not protect black rights • 14th Amnd (proposed 1866; rat 1868) • Radical Republican Plan (1867-1877): • Military districts with federal troops • Required state guarantee of voting • ForceActsreducedKKKintimidation

  17. Key Events in Black History • Identify ways in which African-Americans were discriminated against in the Jim Crow era (1877-1954)

  18. Turning Points in Black History • Economic: sharecropping, crop-lien, racial hiring practices & pay scales • Political: de jour segregation laws in schools & public facilities, poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clauses, dominance of Democratic Party in South, segregation in military, AAA & NRA New Deal initiatives allowed for discrimination, no anti-lynching laws • Social: de facto segregation, race riots due to Great Migration(s), white flight in suburbs, lynching & intimidation

  19. Key Events in Black History • Name up to 3 civil rights leaders of the Jim Crow era (1877-1954) & their key idea

  20. Turning Points in Black History • Booker T. Washington (Atlanta Compromise)—accept discrimination temporarily & focus on improvement through hard work & accommodation • WEB DuBois—political action now via the NAACP, “the Talented Tenth” • Marcus Garvey—black separatism & economic self-dependence • A Philip Randolph—Pushed the “Double V” campaign in WWII

  21. Key Events in Black History • Name 1 positive change each president had on the Civil Rights movement: • F. Roosevelt • H. Truman • D. Eisenhower • L. Johnson

  22. Turning Points in Black History • FDR: ban on discriminatory hiring during WWII (Fair Employ Prac Com) • Truman: desegregation of military (Executive Order 9981) • Eisenhower: forcing integration at Central High in Little Rock, Arkansas (the “Little Rock Nine”) • LBJ: Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned segregation & ended Jim Crow laws; Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy tests & protected polls

  23. Slavery in American History (1619-1865)

  24. Slavery in American History • In 1619, the 1st African slaves were introduced in Jamestown • By 1660, slave labor replaced indentured servitude as the primary colonial labor system: • Northern domestic servants • Chesapeake tobacco plantations • Southern rice & indigo industries • By 1720, the African slave population became self-sustaining

  25. Slavery in American History • The American Revolution in 1776 revealed the hypocrisy of slavery • Nine states abolished slavery • NW Ordinance (1787) of the ArticlesofConfedbannedslavery • The Constitution ended the trans-Atlantic slave trade in 1808, but did not abolish slavery • From 1800 to 1860, “King Cotton” spreadslaveryasfarWestasTexas

  26. Slavery in American History • From 1820-1860, slavery became a divisive issue in America: • Sectional disputes (1820, 1850, popular sovereignty, Dred Scott) • Slave uprisings (Prosser, Vesey, Nat Turner, & John Brown’s raid) • Abolitionists led by William Lloyd Garrison & Frederick Douglass • Civil War & Emancipation Proc

  27. The Failure of Reconstruction & the Rise of Jim Crow (1865-1954)

  28. The Failure of Reconstruction • During Reconstruction, Radical Republicans protected freedmen: • 13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments offered blacks equal rights • The Civil Rights Act of 1875 outlawed racial discrimination • Freedman’s Bureau & KKK Act protected blacks in the South • The 1876 election of Hayes brought an end to Reconstruction

  29. The Jim Crow Era • Jim Crow laws created by state gov’ts legalized segregation: • Poll taxes, literacy tests, & grandfather clauses were used to deprive blacks of voting rights • Most blacks were sharecroppers • KKK enforced racial inequality • In 1896, the Supreme Court declared “separate but equal” in the Plessy v Ferguson case When segregation exists by law it is called de jour segregation

  30. The Jim Crow Era • Civil rights leaders demanded black equality in the Jim Crow era: • In the 1890s, WEB DuBois & Booker T Washington • 1909, NAACP was formed • Marcus Garvey in 1910s • Harlem Renaissance • The New Deal & military segregation in World Wars 1 & 2 promoted racial discrimination

  31. The Jim Crow Era • The 1940s brought some success: • The Great Migration helped break sharecropping in South • In WW2, FDR created the Fair Employment Practices Commission • A. Philip Randolph & “Double V” • In1947,JackieRobinsonwasthe 1st black major league baseball player

  32. Civil Rights as a Political Issue • Truman was the 1st president to attempttoendracialdiscrimination • Created a new commission on civil rights in 1946 & called for anti-lynching laws • Truman’s lasting legacy was the desegregation of the armed forces in 1948 • But, white flight to suburbs & Jim CrowlawslefttheU.S.segregated When segregation exists by “choice,” it is called de facto segregation

  33. The Murder of Emmitt Till “If we hadn't stopped to drink a pop, it wouldn't have taken that long” • The need for black civil rights was evidenced by the 1955 murder of 14 year old Emmitt Till in Mississippi • While visiting relatives in the South, Till was kidnapped & lynched with barbed wire • Two accused white men were acquitted by an all-white jury in just over 1 hour

  34. Essential Question: • What were the significant individuals & accomplishments of the Civil Rights movement? • Reading Quiz Ch 27C (994-1001)

  35. The Modern Civil Rights Movement (1954-1965)

  36. The Struggle Over Civil Rights • The modern Civil Rights movement began in 1954 with Brown v BOE & ended with the Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Blacks in the West & North had low-paying jobs & faced segregated neighborhoods • The Deep South was a totally segregated society due to Jim Crow laws Separate waiting rooms Separate seats on trains & buses Separate & inferior schools Separate phone booths Separate water fountains Separate hospitals

  37. Desegregating the Schools Even “equal” schools, if separate, inflict profound psychological damage to black children • Schools became the primary target of early civil rights advocates in the 1950s • The NAACP 1st targeted unfair university graduate admissions • Thurgood Marshall, a NAACP lawyer, used the 14th Amend’t to attack school segregation & Plessy v Ferguson precedent

  38. Desegregating the Schools • The Supreme Court’s unanimous decision in Brown v Board of Education (1954) ruled “separate facilities are inherently unequal” • Called for desegregation at “deliberate speed” by states • Border states complied quickly but the Deep South resisted—by 1960 less than 1% of blacks attended school with whites But…Pupil Placement Laws allowed for separate schools based on “aptitude” & “morality” Thurgood Marshall’s success in Brown made him the most famous black lawyer in America; In 1967, LBJ made him the 1st black justice to the Supreme Court

  39. Desegregating the Schools • Eisenhower’s silence on Brown sent a false message that he supported segregation • In 1957, Arkansas governor called the Nat’l Guard to prevent black students from enrolling in Little Rock’s Central High • Ike sent in the army to force integration for the “Little Rock 9”

  40. Integrating Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas (1957) Governor Orval Faubus

  41. The Beginnings of Black Activism • Instead of waiting for the gov’t to help, blacks pressed the issue • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) began after the Rosa Parks arrest • Effective carpool system forced buses to stop segregation • Supreme Court ruled AL bus segregation unconstitutional • This success led to the rise of MLK as a civil rights leader

  42. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) • Rosa Parks arrest • Carpool system

  43. The Beginnings of Black Activism “If cursed, do not curse back. If struck, do not strike back, but evidence love and goodwill at all times” “We will match your capacity to endure suffering. We will meet your physical force with soul force. We will not hate you, but we will not obey your evil laws. We will wear you down by pure capacity to suffer.” • MLK’s popularity led to the formation of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to directly attack segregation: • MLK’s passionate oration inspired blacks to support cause • Peaceful resistance & appeal to Christian love were the basis of these resistance efforts

  44. The Beginnings of Black Activism • In 1960, students from NC A&T led a sit-in at a segregated lunch counter in Greensboro, NC: • Inspired similar sit-ins, wade-ins, & kneel-ins across the South • Led to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee • SCLC & SNCC soon surpassed the NAACP for leadership of the civil rights movement Nonviolent Protest Legal Action Nonviolent Protest

  45. Tougaloo Sit-in Greensboro Sit-in • NC A&T Woolwoth’s sit-in in 1960

  46. Moving Slowly on Civil Rights • Civil Rights leaders refused to wait for the gov’t to respond: • Congress of Racial Equality led a freedom ride in 1961 to protest segregated buses • Activists attempted to break a ban on black enrollment at Ole Miss & University of Alabama

  47. Freedom Rides, 1961

  48. University of Alabama students burn desegregation notice Alabama Governor George Wallace blocks black students’ entrance into University of Alabama

  49. Moving Slowly on Civil Rights In 1963, a regional field secretary for the NAACP named Medger Edvars was murdered In 1963, Birmingham’s Sixteenth Street Baptist Church was bombed, killing 4 black girls • JFK campaigned for civil rights, but his fear of alienating southern Democrats forced him to retreat: • JFK deferred to Congress & sent his brother, Attorney Gen RFK, to help blacks in the South • The Justice Dept helped with voting rights lawsuits, but the FBI could not protect civil rights activists in the South In 1963, 35 black homes & churches were firebombed & 20,000 people were arrested during civil rights protests

  50. Birmingham Marches, 1963 • MLK forced JFK to openly support the plight of African-Americans in 1963, via the Birmingham march • Police commissioner “Bull” Conner used brutal force to end the protests & MLK was jailed • Police brutality helped sway public sentiment & allowed JFK to begin civil rights legislation