Lesson 17.2 – The War at Home Today’s Essential Question: How did the Civil War affect civilians?
Vocabulary • Copperhead – Northerner who wanted peace with the Confederacy instead of victory in the war • civilian – anyone who is not in the military • conscription – forced service in the military • bounty – cash bonus paid for enlisting • inflation – increase in prices due to a decrease in the value of money • income tax – a tax on earnings
Check for Understanding • What is today’s Essential Question? • Are your parents civilians? • What happens to prices during a period of inflation?
What is an income tax? An income tax is a tax on earnings, first adopted during the Civil War.
What was a greenback? • A greenback was a form of paper currency issued by the federal government during the Civil War.
What We Already Know Public opinion remained divided in the North, where many people disapproved of Lincoln and the war.
What We Already Know Most of the fighting of the Civil War, and therefore the worst of the destruction, would occur on Southern soil.
What We Already Know Thousands of men, North and South, left their farms and offices to serve in the armed forces.
What We Already Know Before the Civil War, few women worked outside their homes.
Disagreements About the War By 1863, many Southerners were growing weary of the war and its constant sacrifices.
Disagreements About the War Food riots had broken out in several Southern cities, including Richmond, the capital city.
Disagreements About the War Southern soldiers deserted the army in large numbers. By 1863, the Confederate army had shrunk by almost 40% due to casualties and desertion.
Disagreements About the War Southerners like Jefferson Davis believed the Constitution upheld the individual sovereignty and independence of states over that of any central government.
Disagreements About the War • The Confederate states often fell into disagree-ment. • The same principle of states’ rights that led them to break with the Union kept them from coordinat-ing their war effort.
Disagreements About the War • Disagreements over the conduct of the war also arose in the North. • Lincoln’s main opponents were the Copper-heads, Northern Democrats who favored peace with the South.
Disagreements About the War President Lincoln had protesters arrested and suspended the writ of habeas corpus, which prevents the government from holding citizens without a trial.
7. What did Southerners like Jefferson Davis believe the Constitution said about the rights of states? • The constitution upheld the individual sovereignty and independence of states. • States can secede from the Union, but only with Congressional approval. • The rights of states are based on the Constitution. • Under the Constitution, states may not secede from the Union under any circumstances.
8. How did the South’s principle of states’ rights undermine the Confederate war effort? • The South had few mines to provide natural resources that the Confederate war effort required. • Each state worked in its own interest, preventing the coordination of efforts. • Each state decided for itself how much of its mining wealth should be contributed to the government. • Several states seceded from the Confederacy itself.
What is a Copperhead? Choose all that are true!
What is a Copperhead? • Political opponent of Abraham Lincoln • Southerner who favored peace with the North instead of victory in the war. • Political opponent of Jefferson Davis • Northerner who favored peace with the South instead of victory in the war. • Person who helped runaway slaves escape through to the Union lines Choose all that are true!
9. How did President Lincoln deal with Copperheads and war protests? • He had many war protestors arrested. • He tried to win them over to his viewpoint by using logic and persuasion. • He suspended habeas corpus, which prevents the government from holding citizens without a trial. • He exiled Copperheads and their families to the Confederacy. • He ordered the execution of several leading Copperheads.
The Draft Laws As the war dragged on and more soldiers were needed, the government passed conscription laws that required men to serve in the military.
The Draft Laws Both sides allowed wealthy men to hire substitutes to serve in their place.
The Draft Laws • Confederate conscription laws required all men between 18 and 45 to enlist, with few exceptions. • But planters who owned 20 or more slaves could avoid service in the Confederate army. • Poor Southerners complained that it was a “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight.”
The Draft Laws The Union government could afford to offer bounties to men who volunteered to serve, and fewer men needed to be drafted.
The Draft Laws • Even so, the draft was extremely unpopular. • New York City suffered four days of riots, during which rioters destroyed property, attacked people on the streets, and killed many African Americans.
What is conscription? Conscription is a law that required men to serve in the military.
What is a bounty? A bounty is a cash payment given by a government to volunteers who enlisted.
10. How did the draft laws in the North and South differ? • Only the North required all men between 18 and 45 to enlist, with few exceptions. • Only the Confederacy allowed draftees to hire substitutes to serve in their place. • The North offered volunteers a bounty of $300, which led to more volunteers. • The Union allowed very wealthy farmers to be exempt from military service.
Economic Effects of the War • Food shortages were very common in the South, because so many farmers were away fighting in the army. • Another reason for the shortages was that farmers insisted on planting cash crops like cotton instead of food crops.
Economic Effects of the War • Southern civilians rioted over food shortages in several Confederate cities, including Richmond, the capital and broke into shops and stole food and other goods. • Inflation made life harder for working people, with prices rising 9,000 percent.
Economic Effects of the War • Overall, war production boosted industry and fueled the Northern economy. • In the long term, manufacturing would begin to replace farming as the basis of the national economy.
Economic Effects of the War Early in the war, the Union established the first income tax and began issuing a new paper currency, known as greenbacks.
Economic Effects of the War The income tax helped the Union to pay for the war.
Economic Effects of the War The new currency helped the Northern economy by ensuring that people had money to spend.
Why did the South experience food shortages? • Too many farmers were away fighting in the army. • Food was being sent to the front to feed the army. • Farmers insisted on planting cash crops like cotton instead of food crops. • Slaves that could have produced food were drafted into the Confederate army. Choose all that are true!
11. How did the war affect the economy in the South and the North? • Slave resistance hurt the Southern economy. • Food shortages caused by the war were common in the South. • Inflation was much higher in the North than it was in the South. • War production boosted Southern industry. • Several Southern cities experienced food shortages, even riots. Choose all that are true!
Resistance by Slaves With so many Southern men off to war, slaves often resisted by slowing their pace of work or stopping altogether.
Resistance by Slaves Acts of sabotage against crops and farm equipment were very common.
Resistance by Slaves A few slaves even rose up in rebellion against their overseers.
Resistance by Slaves More commonly, though, slaves ran away from plantations to join the Union forces as they pushed farther into Confederate territory.
Resistance by Slaves After Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, even more slaves ran away from plantations, with as many as half a million having fled to Union lines by the end of the war.
Why did slave resistance grow as the war progressed? • Slaves sometimes found soldiers’ discarded weapons to use. • More Southern men were away fighting, and their wives couldn’t control the slaves. • As Union troops drew nearer, slaves grew bold enough to resist. • Confederate soldiers were removed from patrolling the plantations and sent to the front. • As food supplies dwindled, hungry slaves were less willing to submit to their masters. Choose all that are true!
What was the least common form of slave resistance? • Slowing down or stopping work • Breaking tools and farm equipment • Destroying crops • Rising up against their masters • Running away to the Union army
Women Aid the War Effort With so many men away at war, women in both the North and the South assumed increased responsibilities. Read aloud with me!
Women Aid the War Effort Read aloud with me! Women plowed fields and ran farms and plantations.