Chapter 7 Forming a Government
Essential Question • What were some of the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
The Articles of Confederation created a central government with limited powers. America was born out of a rebellion against British rule of taxes and regulation. Individual states wanted self government instead of being ruled by a far-away government with total control.
The strengths of the Articles of Confederation included establishing the first central government with a unicameral legislature. It was primarily a league of friendship between the states. It could issue currency, borrow money and run a military with the states’ support. The Land Ordinance of 1785 called for the surveys and the division of the western public lands; and public schools. The Northwest Territory of 1787 established the Northwest Territory. It also banned slavery, created a system of self government, and permitted a process of new states to be admitted to the Union.
The weaknesses of the Articles included each state raising its own militia and printing its own money. It could not regulate trade between the states. Without an executive or judicial branch, it could not enforce the law or settle disputes. It took an unanimous vote of 13 to amend the Articles, so little could get done. Some states fought over their borders. The national government could not pay its debts because it could not tax. The national military was weak and could not end the uprising of Shay’s rebellion without state militia help. It was hard to protect citizens and enforce international treaties. Local manufacturers were hurt because the Confederation Congress could not impose tariffs in order to protect American goods.
Essential Question • What was South Carolina’s role (especially that of Charles Pinckney) in writing the U.S. Constitution?
The Constitutional Convention was held at Independence Hall in Philadelphia to revise or change the Articles of Confederation. The biggest disagreement was about representation on Congress. The larger states supported the Virginia Plan – a bicameral legislature based on state population. The smaller states supported the New Jersey Plan – a unicameral legislature with equal state representation. The Great Compromise established a bicameral legislature called Congress. Seat in the House of Representatives would be based on population. In the Senate, each state would have tow seats and be equal.
South Carolina pushed for the 3/5ths Compromise, which would allow 3/5ths of slaves to be counted as part of a state’s population, even if they could not vote. This would give S.C. more political power. Pinckney also delayed a ban on the slave trade for 20 years to protect S.C’s plantation economy.
Essential Question • What is the purpose of the Bill of Rights?
Many people opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it lacked a Bill or Rights, which would protect citizens against abuses of power by government. They were amendments, which are official changes, corrections, or additions to the Constitution. The first 10 amendments to the Constitution called the Bill of Rights. They protected rights , added strength and flexibility, and established a clear example for amending the Constitution in the future.
Essential Question • What were the positions of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists concerning the Constitution?
The Federalists believed that the Constitution provided a good balance of power and reflected a careful compromise on a variety of political issues. It was defended by a series of essays called the Federalist Papers. Federalists in the Low Country wanted a strong government to ensure a stable economy.
The Antifederalists opposed the Constitution because they believed that the Convention delegates exceeded their authority by creating a new government. (They were supposed to change the Articles, not scrap them.) They thought the central government was too powerful and lacked a Bill of Rights.
Essential Question • How are the U.S. and S.C. Constitutions different and similar?
Natural Rights • John Locke’s idea of a social contract said that the government was responsible for protecting the people’s __________, or fundamental rights.
Constitution • In 1639, colonists in Connecticut drew up the first written __________ - a set of basic principles and laws that determine the powers and duties of the government.
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom • The __________, drafted in 1787, protected many individual rights, including freedom or religion.
Suffrage • Many states also expanded __________, or voting rights, in their bill of rights.
Articles of Confederation • In 1776 representatives from the colonies joined together to draft the __________, a document creating a central government with limited powers.
Ratification • The new government would not take effect until __________, or formal approval, by all of the states.
Land Ordinance of 1785 • Congress raised money for the new government by passing the __________, which called for surveys and division of public lands in the West so that they could be sold to the public.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 • Congress also passed the __________, which created the Northwest Territory, a huge area in the present-day Midwest.
Pop Quiz #1 • What are natural rights? • What was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787? • What was the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom? • What was the Land Ordinance of 1785? • What were the Articles of Confederation?
Pop Quiz # 2 • What is a constitution? • What is suffrage? • What is ratification? • What was the Northwest Territory?
Mini Question • What ideas and traditions provided the basis for American governments? • Magna Carta • English Bill of Rights • Philosophies of the Enlightenment • John Locke’s idea of a social contract
Mini Question • What powers did the central government have under the Articles of Confederation? • The Confederation Congress could: • Coin money, • Make treaties with foreign nations, • And resolve conflicts between the states.
Mini Question • How did the Confederation Congress provide for the entry of new states? • Under the Northwest Ordinance, • 60,000 settlers could draft a constitution and petition Congress to be admitted to the Union.
Tariffs • The British forced American merchants to pay __________ - taxes on imports or exports – in order to sell their goods in Britain.
Interstate commerce • The Confederation Congress also had no power to regulate __________, which is trade conducted between tow or more states.
Creditors • In Rhode Island, __________, or people who lend money, left the state to avoid being repaid with worthless money.
Debtors • Inflation helped __________, or people who owe money, because they could pay off their debts with money that had lost value.
Depression • In Massachusetts, trade restrictions and economic policies led to a __________, which is a steep drop in economic activity.
Shay’s Rebellion • In 1786 Daniel Shays, a Massachusetts farmer, responded to the economic problem by leading a revolt known a __________.
Pop Quiz • What are tariffs? • What is a depression? • Who are debtors?
Pop Quiz • Who are creditors? • What is interstate commerce? • What was Shay’s Rebellion?
Mini Question • How did other nations treat the new government of the United States? • Britain and Spain were taking advantage of the weak government of the United States. • (The British forced American merchants to pay tariffs and the Spanish closed the lower Mississippi River to U.S. shipping.)
Mini Question • What economic problems arose under the Articles of Confederation? • U.S. government could not issue tariffs • Confederation Congress had no power to regulate interstate commerce • Inflation rose • Led to a depression
Mini Question • What were the causes and the consequences of Shay’s Rebellion? • Farmers were forced to sell their property or go to jail. • This made it clear that the Articles of Confederation did not work. • (Citizens began calling for a stronger, more efficient central government.)
Constitutional Convention • In 1787, delegates from each state gathered at the __________ to discuss revising the Articles of Confederation.
Edmund Randolph • __________ of Virginia led a group of delegates who proposed the Virginia Plan.
Virginia Plan • The __________ gave supreme power to the federal government and called for representation based on the population of each state.
William Paterson • __________ of New Jersey suggested a different plan, called the New Jersey Plan.
New Jersey Plan • The __________ gave more power to the states. It also gave each state an equal number of votes in the legislature regardless of population.
Great Compromise • The __________ gave each state two votes in the legislature’s upper house, while a state’s population determined its number of representatives in the lower house.
Three-Fifths Compromise • The delegates arrived at the __________, which counted three fifths of a state’s slave population in determining its number of representatives.
Federalism • They focused on the idea of __________, which is the distribution of power between a central authority and the states.
Legislative Branch • The first branch they created is the __________, or Congress, which proposes bills and passes them into law.
Executive Branch • The second branch is the __________, which includes the president and administrative offices.
Judicial Branch • The third branch is the __________, which is made up of the national courts, which interpret laws, punish criminals, and settle disputes between states.