World History/Cultures Chapter 17- World War I Section 5 Peace At Last
Introduction • Russia withdraws & U.S. enters war. • America’s entrance helped morale & provided resources. • American navy employs convoysystem to protect ships from u-boats.
Turning the Tide • Fighting stalled prior to American forces arrival. • 1917 French suffered several losses and French forces mutinied. • British launched offensive in Flanders (northern France/Eastern Belgium). Casualties great. British & Germans to the point of end of their reserves.
Total War Effort • Governments directed all people & resources toward effort. Increased size of armies, raised taxes & borrowed money. Controlled economies, banned strikes & censored press to control public opinion. • Women worked in factories- weapons/supplies; as nurses; special branches of the military. Boosted women’s confidence & aided them to fight for women’s rights. Many countries grant woman right to vote after the war.
Global War • World War I affected other parts of the world. Colonies provided resources/recruits for war effort. • Asia/Africa: allied forces gain control of German colonies. • Europeans retain empires at end of war. Upset colonial Asians. • Africans expecting independence/citizenship. • Middle Eastern Arabs helped British defeat Ottoman Turks. • 1916- Sykes-Picot Agreement. British & French determined to divide Ottoman Empire between each other.
Fighting Ends • July 1918: Allied forces under unified commander French General Foch. Stop German offensive outside of Paris. • American forces aid allies & drive Germans back to Germany’s border. • Sept 1918: German generals inform Kaiser William II can’t win war. • Other Central Powers collapse. Ottoman Turks defeated & Austria-Hungary surrendered. • Morale in Germany declined. • Nov 9, 1918: Germany signed armistice- agreed to end fighting.
Effects of War • Political/social instability increased in Europe. • Boundaries of countries redrawn. • 9 million soldiers & 13 million civilians died. • 1915: Ottoman Turks responsible for mass killings of Armenians. Turkish government used excuse angry with Americans for supporting allies. Turks feared Armenian nationalism- had a hatred of Armenians resulting in mass killing.
Restoring Peace • President Woodrow Wilson presented his Fourteen Points Peace Plan prior to end of war. Plan included: international recognition of freedom of the seas and trade, arms limitation & end to all secret alliances. Also called for a “general assembly of nations” to solve future problems. • Britain objects to peace plan- didn’t like idea of open seas as dependent on seas for trade. French objected to plan, as countries didn’t have to pay for war damages. France wanted reparations.
Paris Peace Conference • Jan 1919: delegates from 27 countries met in Paris. Central Powers & Russia not invited. • Big Four attend: U.S.- President Wilson; France- Prime Minister Clemenceau; Britain- Prime Minister Lloyd George; Italy- Prime Minister Orlando. • President Wilson at odds with other powers. Europeans wanted Germany to pay for the war. Wilson wanted a League of Nations and concedes on other points to get it.
Treaty of Versailles • Allies settlement with Germany- Germany’s military reduced & couldn’t manufacture weapons. • Germany returned Alsace-Lorraine to France. France would control coal-rich Saar Basin for 15 years. Allied forces would occupy Rhineland region of Germany. • Germany had to renounce the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Polandreestablished- land from Germany, Austria-Hungary & Russia.
Treaty of Versailles con’t • Germany lost its colonies. Great Britain & France got African colonies. Australia & New Zealand split the German Pacific Islands south of the Equator while Japan took those north of the Equator. • Great Britain & France demanded Germany take full responsibility for war & pay reparations. • Treaty signed Jan 28, 1919. 4 of Wilson’s 14 Points including League of Nations stayed in Treaty.
Other Settlements • Allied Powers signed separate peace agreements with Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary & Turkey. Austria-Hungarybroken up. Austria became very small & weak. Italy received land near Brenner Pass in the Alps but didn’t get the port of Fiume on the Adriatic Sea. • New nations emerge: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuanian, Poland, Czechoslovakia & Yugoslavia. Allied regarded these as a cordon sanitaire - quarantine line. Buffer against Russian or German threat.
Other Settlements con’t • Serbs get their nation of South Slavic peoples- Yugoslavia. • Hungary & Bulgaria lost territory when new nations formed. • Middle East: Ottoman Empire divided & became British mandates- Palestine, Transjordan & Iraq. Lebanon & Syria became French mandates.
Bitter Fruits • War left the world disillusioned & bitter. • Many people became minorities in new nations. Others did not get independence. • Germans humiliated & weakened by Treaty of Versailles. Their resentment grows eventually resulting in World War II.