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World History/Cultures Chapter 17- World War I Section 5 Peace At Last

World History/Cultures Chapter 17- World War I Section 5 Peace At Last. Introduction Russia withdraws & U.S. enters war. America’s entrance helped morale & provided resources . American navy employs convoy system to protect ships from u-boats. Turning the Tide

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World History/Cultures Chapter 17- World War I Section 5 Peace At Last

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  1. World History/Cultures Chapter 17- World War I Section 5 Peace At Last

  2. Introduction • Russia withdraws & U.S. enters war. • America’s entrance helped morale & provided resources. • American navy employs convoysystem to protect ships from u-boats.

  3. Turning the Tide • Fighting stalled prior to American forces arrival. • 1917 French suffered several losses and French forces mutinied. • British launched offensive in Flanders (northern France/Eastern Belgium). Casualties great. British & Germans to the point of end of their reserves.

  4. Total War Effort • Governments directed all people & resources toward effort. Increased size of armies, raised taxes & borrowed money. Controlled economies, banned strikes & censored press to control public opinion. • Women worked in factories- weapons/supplies; as nurses; special branches of the military. Boosted women’s confidence & aided them to fight for women’s rights. Many countries grant woman right to vote after the war.

  5. Global War • World War I affected other parts of the world. Colonies provided resources/recruits for war effort. • Asia/Africa: allied forces gain control of German colonies. • Europeans retain empires at end of war. Upset colonial Asians. • Africans expecting independence/citizenship. • Middle Eastern Arabs helped British defeat Ottoman Turks. • 1916- Sykes-Picot Agreement. British & French determined to divide Ottoman Empire between each other.

  6. Fighting Ends • July 1918: Allied forces under unified commander French General Foch. Stop German offensive outside of Paris. • American forces aid allies & drive Germans back to Germany’s border. • Sept 1918: German generals inform Kaiser William II can’t win war. • Other Central Powers collapse. Ottoman Turks defeated & Austria-Hungary surrendered. • Morale in Germany declined. • Nov 9, 1918: Germany signed armistice- agreed to end fighting.

  7. Effects of War • Political/social instability increased in Europe. • Boundaries of countries redrawn. • 9 million soldiers & 13 million civilians died. • 1915: Ottoman Turks responsible for mass killings of Armenians. Turkish government used excuse angry with Americans for supporting allies. Turks feared Armenian nationalism- had a hatred of Armenians resulting in mass killing.

  8. Restoring Peace • President Woodrow Wilson presented his Fourteen Points Peace Plan prior to end of war. Plan included: international recognition of freedom of the seas and trade, arms limitation & end to all secret alliances. Also called for a “general assembly of nations” to solve future problems. • Britain objects to peace plan- didn’t like idea of open seas as dependent on seas for trade. French objected to plan, as countries didn’t have to pay for war damages. France wanted reparations.

  9. Paris Peace Conference • Jan 1919: delegates from 27 countries met in Paris. Central Powers & Russia not invited. • Big Four attend: U.S.- President Wilson; France- Prime Minister Clemenceau; Britain- Prime Minister Lloyd George; Italy- Prime Minister Orlando. • President Wilson at odds with other powers. Europeans wanted Germany to pay for the war. Wilson wanted a League of Nations and concedes on other points to get it.

  10. Treaty of Versailles • Allies settlement with Germany- Germany’s military reduced & couldn’t manufacture weapons. • Germany returned Alsace-Lorraine to France. France would control coal-rich Saar Basin for 15 years. Allied forces would occupy Rhineland region of Germany. • Germany had to renounce the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Polandreestablished- land from Germany, Austria-Hungary & Russia.

  11. Treaty of Versailles con’t • Germany lost its colonies. Great Britain & France got African colonies. Australia & New Zealand split the German Pacific Islands south of the Equator while Japan took those north of the Equator. • Great Britain & France demanded Germany take full responsibility for war & pay reparations. • Treaty signed Jan 28, 1919. 4 of Wilson’s 14 Points including League of Nations stayed in Treaty.

  12. Other Settlements • Allied Powers signed separate peace agreements with Austria, Bulgaria, Hungary & Turkey. Austria-Hungarybroken up. Austria became very small & weak. Italy received land near Brenner Pass in the Alps but didn’t get the port of Fiume on the Adriatic Sea. • New nations emerge: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuanian, Poland, Czechoslovakia & Yugoslavia. Allied regarded these as a cordon sanitaire - quarantine line. Buffer against Russian or German threat.

  13. Other Settlements con’t • Serbs get their nation of South Slavic peoples- Yugoslavia. • Hungary & Bulgaria lost territory when new nations formed. • Middle East: Ottoman Empire divided & became British mandates- Palestine, Transjordan & Iraq. Lebanon & Syria became French mandates.

  14. Bitter Fruits • War left the world disillusioned & bitter. • Many people became minorities in new nations. Others did not get independence. • Germans humiliated & weakened by Treaty of Versailles. Their resentment grows eventually resulting in World War II.

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