Necessary Abbreviations • BCE: Before the Common Era • CE : Common Era • BP: Before Present • (These are used in AP World History in preference to B.C. and A.D.)
The First Great Changes • Adaptations driven by climate • Last great Ice Age began about 2 million years ago (BP) • Long cold intervals with warming intervals of about 10,000 to 30,000 years • Present Warming Period is the Holocene, beginning about 13,000 years ago. • Some now speak of the Anthropocene, a period in which humans have affected the climate and environment.
Human Adaptations • Manual dexterity • Walking erect • Larger, more complex brains • Led to tool making and technology • Language
Where did humans develop? • AFRICA! • During the Paleolithic Era
Australopithecus • Olduvai Gorge, East Africa • 4 million years BP • “Lucy”
Homo Habilis • Man Having Ability • First Known Tool User • 2.5 million years B.P. • Omnivorous Opportunist • Scavenger
Homo Erectus • Man Walking Upright • 1 million years B.P. • Physically Larger • Increased Intelligence • Spread beyond Africa into Eurasia
Inventive rather than Instinctive • Tools • Crude shelters or windbreaks
Two early Homo Erectus Discoveries • Java Man discovered 1891 • Peking Man (first known fire user)
Eventual Homo Erectus Population of 1. 5 million • Aggressive: Lots of smashed in skulls and broken bones
Homo Sapiens • Mesolithic Era • Neanderthal Man • 200,000 years B.P.
Ranged from Europe to Southwest Asia • Larger brain capacity than modern humans • Artificial tools • Buried dead with tools • Cave dwellers
Cro-Magnon Man • 45,000-10,000 BCE • Modern Man (homo sapiens sapiens?) • Northern latitudes of Eurasia, the Americas • Improved tools, sewn clothing, housing
Hunting in large, cooperative bands • Long distance trade • Formation of regional or tribal associations • Art: carvings, cave paintings
Neolithic Era • Homo Sapiens Sapiens • By 12,000 years BP human population spread into Australia and the Americas. • Two theories: • “Out of Africa” • “Parallel Development”
Out of Africa • Mitochondrial DNA indicates all present humans descend from a single woman who lived in Africa approximately 150,000 to 200,000 BP • Mitochondrial DNA is collected and analyzed in comparison to the Cambridge Reference Sequence (the first MtDNA ever analyzed).
Languages • The development of language is another clue to early human origins • The oldest languages appear to be the “click” languages of southern and central Africa. • Depending on how they are classified, there may be over 100 language families in the world today.
English is a branch of the Indo-European language family. • Other language families include: Uralic, Altaic, Afro-Asiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Malayo-Polynesian, Niger-Congo, Dravidian, etc.
“Month” in various Indo-European languages • English month Spanish mes • Dutch maand Portuguese mês • German Monat Italian mese • Swedish månad Polish miesiac • Welsh mis Russian myesyats • Gaelic mí Lithuanian menuo • French mois Albanian muaj • Greek minas Farsi mâh • Hindi mahina
The Neolithic Revolution • Aka “The Neolithic Transition” • Development of: • AGRICULTURE
ca 12,000-15,000 years ago • Middle East • Wheat and barley • In East Asia, rice • In the Americas, corn (maize), sweet potatoes
Impact of the Neolithic Revolution • Hunter-gatherer societies: nomadic, little or no gender specialization or economic differences.
Sedentary Agriculture led to: • Property • Laws • Government • Differentiation of labor • Social hierarchies • Gender inequality • Formal religion • Population growth
Population Growth • 10.000 BCE 4 million • 5000 BCE 5 million • 3000 BCE 14 million • 2000 BCE 27 million • 1000 BCE 50 million • 500 CE 100 million
Religious Changes • Based on the need to preserve fertility
Animistic • Anthropomorphic
Government • Theocracy • Monarchy
CIVILIZATION • The most complex stage in the development of human culture. • Symbolic Behavior (writing, art) • Human community primarily concentrated in communities or states • Distinct division of labor • Complex religions • Record keeping required (writing)
Division of labor • Subsistence Raisers (farmers, herders) • Artisans and laborers: brickmakers, potters, metallurgy, weaving. • Groups dependent on but in control of farmers and artisans: bureaucrats, soldiers, rulers, priests, etc. • Merchants and traders
Civilization and Religion • Fertility based • Often pantheistic, polytheistic • Rituals • Specialized buildings (monumental architecture) • Often rulers considered to be in special relationship to the deities.
Civilization and Economy • Exchange of goods and services • Involves non-resident groups: travelling merchants • Barter economy, gradually giving way to monetary economy
Why was Eurasia the home of most early civilizations? • East-West Axis • Many cereal/grass crops • Population of easily domesticable animals • Animal contact led to diseases spreading to human population • Disease exposure led to biological resistance/immunities and a Eurasian advantage over other continents
What makes a civilization? • Technology: irrigation, metallurgy, calculation, monumental architecture, chemistry • Graphic Symbols: writing, iconography • Higher Abstract Thought: scientific activity, philosophical questions, ethical conduct and law • Complex Government Institutions
The Importance of Writing • Two phases in writing: • Accounting and Naming • Literature and History • Both phases must be present in a civilization.
Cultural Diffusion or Independent Invention? • What is more important?: • Contact between civilizations (cross cultural trade, war, etc.) • Independent developments within separate civilizations.
Pastoral Societies • Herders • Essential Link Between Civilizations • Conquerors, Merchants, Guards
Primary Civilizations • Arise Indigenously • Cultural Diffusion vs. Independent Invention • River Valleys Sumer (Tigris-Euphrates) Egypt (Nile) Harappa (Indus) San Dei or Three Dynasty China (Hwang He)