The Rise of Dictators& World War II Steps to War Chapter 27, Section 1
Essential Questions: • What justifies a country going to war?
Germany 1936 • “The National Socialist (Nazi) regime in Germany is based on a program of ruthless force, which program has for its aim, first, the enslavement of the German population to a National Socialist social and political program, and then to use the force of these 67 million people for the extension of German political and economic sovereignty over South-Eastern Europe – thus putting it into a position to dominate Europe completely.” • George Messersmith, quoted in The Making of the 2nd World War
The Treaty of Versailles: • Italy – Wanted More Territory and Colonies After WWI Than it Got • Japan– Felt Ignored by European Countries (Why???) • Germany: • Lost 10% of Land • Lost All Colonies • No Army – Had to Disarm • Pay $33 Billion in War Damages • Had to Accept Full Blame for the WWI!
How Were Dictators Able to Come to Power? • After WWI, Many European Countries Were Destroyed • Economies were in Ruins – NO JOBS! • The Great Depression of the 1930’s Caused Massive Unemployment! • New Leaders (Dictators Emerged!)
Benito Mussolini • New Leader of Italy (Dictator by 1925) • Started Fascism – Extreme Form of Patriotism and Nationalism • Sing the National Anthem! • “Il Duce” (The Leader)
Adolph Hitler • New Leader of Germany (1933) • Leader of the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (The Nazi’s) • Preached German Racial Superiority: • Germans Were the Best! • Blamed Jews for Germany’s Loss in WWI • Promised to Avenge the WWI Loss • Blonde Hair and Blue Eyes: Please Stand Up!
Great Public Speaker! • Hitler Was a Great Public Speaker! • Energetic/Motivating/ Fired Up • The German People Loved Him! (Any Idea Why?) • Promised the German People to Return Germany to Greatness! • Told Germans the Defeat at World War I was NOT Their Fault – It was the Jews Fault! (Scapegoat)
Joseph Stalin • Became Leader of the Soviet Union when Vladimir Lenin Died • Communism – Under Stalin the Government Attempted to Control All Aspects of Peoples Lives • No Religion/Censored Books/ Censored TV Shows/No Private Property/Etc… • Had Absolute Power – Arrested/Jailed/Killed Anyone Against Him
Japanese Imperialism: 1931 • Japan in 1931 was Very Powerful! • Wanted More Land and Natural Resources ($$$) • In 1931, Japan Attacked Manchuria (Northern Province of China) • Took Over That Area and Looked to Conquer More of China/Asia!
Italian Imperialism: 1935 • Italy Attacked Ethiopia in 1935 (Africa) • One of Only a Few Countries Left NOT Owned by European Countries • Check Out Who Owned Africa in the 1930’s!
1st Sign of World War II • Adolph Hitler in 1936 Moved German Troops into the Rhineland • The Rhineland is an Area Right on Border Between France and Germany (Rhine River) • This Was a Violation of the Treaty of Versailles! (Having an Army Too!) • Nanny Nanny Poo-Poo!
German Invasion of the Rhineland • Violation of the Treaty of Versailles! • France is Outraged! (And Scared): • Germany is Right on Their Border! • They Have an Army! • Both France and the League of Nations Do Nothing About It! • How Does the League of Nations “Look” to Adolph Hitler and the World?
Rome-Berlin Axis • Alliance Between Hitler and Mussolini (Germany and Italy) • 2nd Sign that Peace Would NOT Last Long in Europe • Alliances – Causes of World Wars!
Spanish Civil War: 1939 • Civil War Breaks Out in Spain • Fascist Military vs. Elected Government • Fascists Win! • Hitler & Mussolini Supported the Fascists in Spain with Guns, Troops, Weapons, Aircraft
4th Sign of World War II • Hitler and Germany Invade Austria in 1938 • Austria Did NOT Fight Back! • Most of Austria Was Made Up of German Speaking Peoples – They Wanted to be Part of Germany!
The Sudetenland • Region of Czechoslovakia Where Many People of German Decent Lived • Czechoslovakia Did NOT Want to Give it Up to Hitler and Nazi Germany • Hitler Wanted the Sudetenland! • The Sudetenland Was Once Part of Germany Taken Away After WWI
The Munich Agreement • Hitler Wanted the Sudetenland! France & the Soviet Union Say NO! (We Got Your Back!) • Europe Was on the Brink of War • Prime Minister of England Neville Chamberlain Met with Adolph Hitler to Solve the Crisis • They Met in Munich, Germany and Came to an Agreement
Appeasement • The Munich Agreement Appeased Adolph Hitler • Chamberlain Agreed to Give the Sudetenland to Hitler • In Return, Germany Had to Promise to NOT Invade Any More Countries! • Can YOU Think of Another Example of Appeasement?
The Munich Agreement Neville Chamberlain Britain’s Prime Minister Before World War II “The agreement will achieve peace in our time” Winston Churchill Will be the Next Prime Minister in Britain During WWII “Britain and France had to choose between war and shame. They chose shame. They will get war too.”
Albert Einstein • Was a German Jewish Citizen • Was Visiting the U.S. When the Nazi’s Took Over Germany in 1933 • Feared Going Back to Germany • Was a Physicist: • Worked on the Manhattan Project! • Helped to Build the 1st Atomic Bomb
Hitler Breaks the Munich Agreement • In March of 1939, Hitler Invades and Takes Over ALL of Czechoslovakia • Declared Germany Would Invade Poland Next! • Britain and France Warned that if Germany Invaded Poland, They Would Go to WAR!
The German-Soviet UnionNon-Aggression Pact • Germany and the Soviet Union Agreed NOT to Declare War on Each Other • Poland is in the Middle of Germany and the U.S.S.R. • Germany Agreed to Attack from the East, U.S.S.R. from the West • Germany and the Soviet Union Would Split Up (Share) Poland!
Invasion of Poland: Start of WWII • September 1st, 1939, Germany and U.S.S.R. Invade Poland • Britain and France Declare War on Germany! • World War II Begins!
Blitzkrieg: Lightning War • New Method of Warfare: • Uses Speed and Surprise Using Tanks, Troops and Airplanes • Took Less Than a Month to Conquer Poland!