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The Cardiovascular System: The Blood Chapter 18 – Lecture Notes. to accompany Anatomy and Physiology: From Science to Life textbook by Gail Jenkins, Christopher Kemnitz, Gerard Tortora. Chapter Overview. 18.1 Blood Anatomy and Physiology 18.2 Hemopoiesis 18.3 Mature Red Blood Cells

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The Cardiovascular System: The Blood Chapter 18 – Lecture Notes


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    1. The Cardiovascular System: The BloodChapter 18 – Lecture Notes to accompany Anatomy and Physiology: From Science to Life textbook by Gail Jenkins, Christopher Kemnitz, Gerard Tortora

    2. Chapter Overview 18.1 Blood Anatomy and Physiology 18.2 Hemopoiesis 18.3 Mature Red Blood Cells 18.4 RBC Life Cycle 18.5 Erythropoiesis 18.6 Blood Groups 18.7 White Blood Cells 18.8 Platelets 18.9 Hemostasis

    3. Essential Terms plasma • liquid portion of blood formed elements • cells and cell fragments of blood RBC • red blood cell WBC • white blood cells or leukocytes hemopoiesis • blood cell production pluripotent stem cell • cells with capacity to develop into several types of cells

    4. Introduction Cardiovascular system consists of three interrelated components • blood • heart • blood vessels Blood is connective tissue with liquid portion (plasma) and cell and cell fragments portion (formed elements) RBCs carry oxygen WBCs function in immunity

    5. Concept 18.1Anatomy and Physiology of Blood

    6. Functions of Blood • Transportation • oxygen from lungs to body tissues • metabolic wastes from tissues to lungs, kidneys, and liver • nutrients from GI tract to body cells • hormones • Regulation • pH via buffers • body temperature • Protection • blood loss • immunity and immune responses

    7. Physical Characteristics of Blood • more viscous than water • temperature about 1 degree celcius higher than oral or rectal body temperature • alkaline pH (7.35 to 7.45) • ~8% of total body weight • 5-6 L in adult male • 4-5 L in adult female

    8. Components of Blood • 45% formed elements • 99% are RBCs • 1% WBCs and platelets • 55% blood plasma

    9. Figure 18.1a

    10. Figure 18.1b

    11. Blood Plasma • 91.5% water • 7% proteins • synthesized mainly by hepatocytes • most plentiful is albumin 54% of all proteins • helps maintain blood osmotic pressure • globulins 38% of all proteins • antibodies or immunoglobulins • fibrinogen 7% of all proteins • key component of blood clots • 1.5% solutes other than proteins • electrolytes, nutrients, gases, regulatory substances, vitamins, and waste products

    12. Table 18.1 pt 1

    13. Table 18.1 pt 2

    14. Formed Elements Living cells • RBCs • WBC • neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils Cell Fragments • platelets Hematocrit • relative percent of RBCs to total blood volume

    15. Formed Elements Erythropoietin • hormone that stimulates RBC production • anemia abnormally low hematocrit • polycythemia abnormally high hematocrit

    16. Concept 18.2Hemopoiesis

    17. Hemopoiesis • process by which formed elements develop • before birth occurs in liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes of fetus • last trimester and beyond occurs in red bone marrow • red bone marrow found in spaces between trabeculae of spongy bone • 0.05-0.1% of red bone marrow are pluripotent stem cells

    18. Figure 18.3

    19. Concept 18.3Mature Red Blood Cells

    20. Erythrocytes • contain hemoglobin • adult males have ~ 5.4 million RBCs per microliter of whole blood • adult females have ~ 4.8 million RBCs per microliter of whole blood • one drop of blood is ~50 microliters • mature blood cells leave marrow at rate of 2 million per second • same rate they are destroyed

    21. RBC Anatomy • biconcave on disks • ~ 8 microliters diameter • lack a nucleus and other organelles • cannot reproduce • essentially consist of a plasma membrane, cytosol, and hemoglobin • each contains about 280 million hemoglobin molecules • lack mitochondria

    22. Figure 18.4a

    23. Figure 18.4b

    24. Figure 18.4c

    25. RBC Physiology • all internal space is available for oxygen transport • generate ATP anaerobically • don’t use any oxygen • hemoglobin= • globin (protein) + pigment protein called heme with iron ion in center where oxygen is transported • also transports about 13% of total carbon dioxide

    26. Concept 18.4RBC Life Cycle

    27. Figure 18.5

    28. Concept 18.5Erythropoiesis

    29. Erythropoiesis • production of RBCs • proerythroblast divides and develops to eject nucleus becoming a reticulocyte • only 34% hemoglobin • contain some mitochondria • ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum • usually develop into erythrocytes within 1 to 2 days after release for bone marrow

    30. Figure 18.6

    31. Concept 18.6Blood Groups

    32. ABO Blood Groups • Antigen A on RBCs of people with type A blood • anti B antibody in plasma • Antigen B on blood cells of people with type B blood • anti A antibody in plasma • Antigen A and Antigen B on RBCs of people with type AB blood • neither antibody in plasma • Neither antigen is on RBCs of people with type O blood • anti A and anti B antibodies in plasma

    33. Figure 18.7

    34. Rh Blood Group • antigen first discovered in blood of rhesus monkey • Rh+ have antigen • Rh- do not have antigen • no anti Rh antibodies until exposed to Rh+ blood

    35. Table 18.2

    36. Transfusions • whole blood • blood components • RBCs • plasma • if incompatible the antigens causing hemolysis of donated cells and to a much lesser extent hemolysis of recipients RBCs (type A and B only)

    37. Table 18.3

    38. Concept 18.7White Blood Cells

    39. WBCs or Leukocytes • have a nucleus and do not contain hemoglobin • either granular or agranular • granular • neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils • agranular • lymphocytes, monocytes

    40. Figure 18.3

    41. Granular Leukocytes • eosinophils • combat effects of histamine and other inflammatory and allergic responses • phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes and some parasitic worms • basophils • release heparin, histamine, and serotonin • intensifying inflammatory response • involved in hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions • neutrophils • antibiotic activity against bacteria and fungi • release lysozyme, strong oxidants, and defensins

    42. Agranular Leukocytes • monocytes • develop into macrophages and phagocytize microbes • clean up cellular debris following an infection • lymphocytes • B cells • differentiate into cells that produce antibodies • T cells • attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancers, some bacteria, some allergic reactions • natural killer cells • attack wide variety of infectious microbes and certain spontaneously arising tumor cells

    43. WBC Life Span • most live only a few days • during infection some live only a few hours • some B and T cells can live for years • differential WBC count • can distinguish between viral, bacterial, parasitic infections, allergies

    44. Table 18.4

    45. Concept 18.8Platelets

    46. Platelets • also known as thrombocytes • fragment of a megakaryoblast • fragments into 2000-3000 parts and then leave marrow to enter blood • between 150,000-400,000 per each 1 microliter of blood • function to stop bleeding by forming a plug

    47. Table 18.5

    48. Concept 18.9Hemostasis

    49. Hemostasis • sequence of responses that stops bleeding • must be quick, localized, and carefully controlled • vascular spasm • smooth muscle contracts immediately after damage • platelet plug formation • Fig. 18.10 • blood clotting • Fig. 18.11 and 18.12

    50. Fig. 18.10 pt 1