Memory. AP Psychology . Memory. Memory is defined as the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. Different models are used to explain memory No one model accounts for all memory phenomena. . INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL.
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Working memory accounts for our ability to carry on a conversation(phonological loop) while exercising (visuospatial working memory).
Cues and Interference
Cues and Interference (cont’d)
Problem Solving: generally involves identifying a problem, generating problem solving strategies, trying a strategy, and evaluating the results.
“It’s not that I’m so smart, it’s just that I
stay with problems longer.” –Albert Einstein
Noam Chomsky (naturist):
Believes that our brains prewired for a universal grammar of nouns, verbs, subjects, objects, negations, and questions.
Compares our language acquisition capacity to a “language acquisition device” in which grammar switches are turned on as children are exposed to their language.
Believes that overgeneralization is evidence that children generate all sorts of sentences they have never heard and could not be imitating others.
Critical period for language development – if children are not exposed to language development before adolescence, they will unable to acquire language.
B.F. Skinner (nurture – behaviorist):
Believed that children learn language by association, reinforcement, and imitation.
Asserted that babies imitate phonemes around them and get reinforcement for using these sounds.
A baby’s first meaningful words are a result of shaping that is done by parents during the 1st year of life.
Social Interactionists: agree that language acquisition is a combination of nurture and nature.
They believe that children are biologically prepared but assert that the environment can either activate this potential or constrain it.
Benjamin Whorf (1956)
Linguistic Determinism hypothesis: language determines the way we think.
Different languages impose different constraints on reality
For example, the Hopi have no past tense for their verbs, so he contended that the Hopi could not think about the past.
Today, more accurate to say, language influences thought.
Words convey ideas, Research on bilingual people demonstrate that different languages embody different ways of thinking.