Ancient Civilizations:Mesopotamia-Egypt Themes Notes AP World History
Mesopotamia: Isolated city cities function as isolated political units or City-State Political structure: Kings ruled city-states as monarchy (Sargon, Hammurabi) Trade with outlying territories: Egypt, Syria, Near East out-posts, Turkey Babylonians united Mes. (Hammurabi, 1792-1750 BC) Code of Hammurabi: First codified system of laws Egypt: Unified Egypt lead by the God-King Pharaoh (Menes, 3100 BC, Old Kingdom) Hyksos people from near east settled in Nile Delta. Ousted by New kingdom Pharaohs after bringing bronze working (farming tools and weapons). New Kingdom: invaded parts of Syria and Palestine Hittite Rise: People of central Turkey brought new languages and Iron technology as major advancement Rameses II: last great Egyptian pharaoh (1290-1224 BC) Political :Trade, War, Diplomacy, Nation Building
Mesopotamia: Writing—Pictograph to Ideograms Schools Literature Egypt: Stone working technologies—Pyramids Bronze working brought by the Hyksos Written Language—Pictograph Demography: Spread to Palestine and Syria in New Kingdom Technology, Inventions, and Demography
Social Structure Mesopotamia • Kings and nobles: King and royal family, priests, and high officials • Free clients: Workers who relied on royal family. Worked noble lands in return for an independent plot of land. • Commoners: Free citizens who could buy and sell their lands. City dwellers had some political rights. • Slaves: Indentured servants, prisoners of war, and criminals. • Women: domestic roles, fewer political rights, men controlled home and political world. Some roles for women in religion and some property rights for women.
Social Structure Egypt • Pharaohs: God-King on earth rules divine monarchy • Royal family and advisors • Scribes and other government officials • Soldiers, merchants, artisans • Farmers and free workers • Slaves • Women: Also mainly filled traditional roles, no females allowed in scribe schools • Some female leaders as wife of the Pharaoh, did receive royal burial • Goddesses important part of religion
Mesopotamia: Polytheistic Religion Animism—prayed to prevent the wrath of the harsh world Code of Hammurabi—laws governed crime, medicine, trade, and agriculture. Spread of Culture: Syria, Near East, Egypt. Egypt: Polytheistic Religion; Osiris, Isis, others. Active after-life mythology. Mummification as part of death and after life. Short period of monotheism (Akhenaten, 1367-1350 BC). Pharaoh is god Horus in human form. Divine rule. Ironworking form Hittites Cultural and Intellectual