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20c China: The Road to Communism. Dr. Sun Yixian (1866 – 1925). (Dr. Sun Yat-sen). Chinese Warlords, 1920s. Yuan Shi-kai. China in 1924. Mao Zedong As a Young Revolutionary. (Mao Tse-tung). Jiang Jieshi Becomes President of Nationalist China, 1928. (Chiang Kai-shek). The Long March

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20c china the road to communism

20c China:

The Road to Communism

Jiang jieshi becomes president of nationalist china 1928
Jiang Jieshi Becomes President of Nationalist China, 1928

(Chiang Kai-shek)

Overview write this
Overview (write this):

  • Agricultural society

  • Corrupt warlords took over after the dynasties fell

  • Chiang Kai-Shek (nationalist) takes power

  • Long March (communists gaining support)

  • Japan begins invading China

Dates to remember
Dates to Remember:

  • 1937-Japan invaded China

  • 1939-Germany invaded Poland (official start of WWII)

  • 1941-Pearl Harbor was bombed and we entered the war

  • 1945-atomic bombing of Japan—war ends

20c china the road to communism

The Communist


1946 - 1949


  • WWII ends

  • China realizes that their leader was wimpy

  • Communism spreads

  • Chiang Kai-Shek moves to Taiwan to start “The New, Real China” (he was nuts)

More to write
More to write:

  • Domino Theory (fear of the spread of communism)

  • Containment Policy (to follow)—don’t let it spread!

  • Fact: the U.S. didn’t acknowledge Communist China until 1972! We still tried to support Chiang Kai-Shek until then

Reasons for the communists success
Reasons for the Communists’ Success

  • Mao won support of peasants – land

  • Mao won support of women

  • Mao’s army used guerilla war tactics

  • Many saw the Nationalist government as corrupt

  • Many felt that the Nationalists allowed foreigners to dominate China.

20c china the road to communism

The Great Leap

Forward (or Backward?)


Great leap forward 1958
Great Leap Forward, 1958

  • 5 year plan to increase agriculture and industry

  • Communes

    • Groups of people who live and work together

    • Property held in common

    • Had production quotas

  • Failed due to poor quality of products, poor weather hurt agriculture

Communist china under mao
Communist China Under Mao

  • Industrialized China

  • Increased literacy

  • Class privileges ended

  • Rural Chinese received health care

  • One-party dictatorship

  • Denied people basic rights and freedoms

Mao panchen lama dalai lama in beijing 1954
Mao, Panchen Lama, Dalai Lama in Beijing, 1954

  • Tibet --> an autonomous area.

  • Dalai Lama fled in the late 1950s to India.

20c china the road to communism

The Great


Cultural Revolution

1966 - 1976

A campaign against the four olds
A Campaign Against the “FOUR OLDS”

  • Old Thoughts

  • Old Culture

  • Old Customs

  • Old Habits

To Rebel Is Good!

Communist china under mao1
Communist China Under Mao

  • Designed to renew revolutionary spirit and establish a more equitable society

  • Mao wanted to put “intellectuals” in their place

  • Schools shut down – students revolted

  • Red Guards – students who attacked professors, government officials, factory managers

20c china the road to communism

With regard to the great teacher Chairman Mao, cherish the word 'Loyalty'. With regard to the great Mao Zedong Thought, vigorously stress the word 'Usefulness'. (1968)

Cult of Personality

20c china the road to communism

The reddest, reddest, red sun in our heart, Chairman Mao, and us togetherZhejiang Workers, Farmers and Soldiers Art Academy collective, 1968

Mao’s Little Red Book

Propaganda poster
Propaganda Poster thick of struggle!

Ping pong diplomacy u s players at great wall 1971
thick of struggle!Ping-Pong Diplomacy”: U. S. Players at Great Wall, 1971

Power struggle
Power Struggle thick of struggle!

Communist Traditionalists



Zhou Enlai

“The Gang of Four”: Jiang Qin, Chen Boda, Wang Hongwen, Yao Wenyuan

20c china the road to communism

Communist Government thick of struggle!

and a

Capitalist Economy

Deng xiaoping 1905 1997
Deng Xiaoping (1905-1997) thick of struggle!

De maoization
De-Maoization thick of struggle!

“The 4 Modernizations”Progress in:

  • Agriculture

  • Industry

  • Science

  • Defense

Class struggle was no longer the central focus!

Gap between rich poor
Gap Between Rich & Poor thick of struggle!

Deng: If you open a window, some flies naturally get in!

Tiananmen square 1989
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!

More democracy!

Tiananmen square 19891
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!

Student activist, Wang Dan, Beijing University

Tiananmen square 19892
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!

Democracy—Our Common Ideal!

Tiananmen square 19893
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!


Tiananmen square 19894
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!

The Government Clamps Down

Tiananmen square 19895
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!

One Lone Man’s Protest

Tiananmen square 19896
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!

The Massacre: The People’s Army Moves In

Tiananmen square 19897
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!

The Army Looks for Dissidents

Tiananmen square 19898
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!

Student Leaders Are Arrested

Tiananmen square 19899
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!

Chinese Students Mourn the Dead

Tiananmen square 198910
Tiananmen Square, 1989 thick of struggle!

The Reestablishment of Order

What s the message here
What’s the Message Here? thick of struggle!

Demography thick of struggle!

  • may be no surer predictor of destiny than trade data. But of the two momentous changes championed by Deng Xiaoping a quarter-century ago, coercive population controls and experiments with market economics, the jury is still out on which will do more to shape China's long-term potential.

Demography thick of struggle!

Demography thick of struggle!

  • There are too many retirees in China, and not enough young people to replace them.

  • Think about it—WHY? You know this! 

D emography
D thick of struggle!emography

  • "The evidence is overwhelming that a large population of unmarried adult males is a risk factor for both crime and war," Ms. den Boer said in an interview. "The fact that China is an authoritarian country is another risk factor."