Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations

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  1. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Sir Arthur Evans Knossos Palace Economy

  2. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Review: Sir Arthur Evans Knossos Palace Economy

  3. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Review: Sir Arthur Evans Knossos Palace Economy

  4. Bronze Age Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations

  5. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Today: The end of Minoan civilization: other sites and religion Mycenaean civilization: graves, palaces, writing, and collapse

  6. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Other sites include -- Palace sites (Phaistos, Zakros, Mallia) -- Towns (Gournia) -- Burial sites

  7. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Other sites include -- Palace sites (Phaistos, Zakros, Mallia) -- Towns (Gournia) -- Burial sites

  8. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Other sites include -- Palace sites (Phaistos, Zakros, Mallia) -- Towns (Gournia) -- Burial sites

  9. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Other sites include -- Palace sites (Phaistos, Zakros, Mallia) -- Towns (Gournia) -- Burial sites

  10. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Other sites include -- Palace sites (Phaistos, Zakros, Mallia) -- Towns (Gournia) -- Burial sites -- small palaces -- sanctuaries (peak and cave sanctuaries) -- temples

  11. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Minoan religion Places of worship Aegean religion The main purpose of Aegean religion (and very similar to later Greek and Roman religion): to secure the survival of the community Raises the question of connections

  12. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations • Early Minoan: 3000 – 2000 BC • Middle Minoan: 2000 – 1550 BC • Late Minoan: 1559 – 1100 BC Pre-palace Period: 3300-1900 BC Old Palace Period: 1900-1700 BC New Palace Period: 1700-1450 BC Post-palace Period: 1450-1100 BC Mycenaean civilization 1. Signs of progress on mainland prior to 1600 BC 2. Minoan influence on the mainland and Minoan collapse

  13. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Mycenaean civilization The megaron

  14. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Mycenaean civilization Writing: Linear B

  15. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Mycenaean civilization Shaft graves (and tholos tombs)

  16. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Mycenaean civilization The Palaces Mycenae Tiryns Pylos Thebes Citadel at Gla

  17. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Mycenaean civilization The Palaces The megaron has evolved to become the central focus

  18. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Mycenaean civilization The Palaces The megaron has evolved to become the central focus

  19. Bronze Age: Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations Mycenaean civilization The Palaces The megaron has evolved to become the central focus

  20. The end of Mycenaean civilization Collapse of the Mycenaean Palaces  Indications of trouble:  -fortification walls extended and strengthened  -fortified gates added, such as the postern gate at Tiryns  -water supplies secured  -wall built at the Isthmus of Corinth  -fortress at Gla in Boeotia built

  21. The end of Mycenaean civilization The Destruction -nearly every Mycenaean site shows that a catastrophic destruction occurred around 1200 BC -some sites were destroyed, reoccupied and attacked again; others were destroyed and never reoccupied (e.g. Pylos) -all sites, except Athens, were all ultimately destroyed -this devastation was not limited to Greece: -Hittite Empire collapsed just after 1200 BC due to famine, unrest and rebellion -Troy was destroyed ca. 1250-1200 -Egypt suffered from a series of invaders -Cyprus, parts of Palestine and Syria were also attacked

  22. The end of Mycenaean civilization • Reasons for such widespread destruction: -external causes (invasions, migration, raiding)? -internal conditions due to stresses within the Mycenaean political and economic system? -collapse of mainland palaces must be viewed in context of entire Mediterranean

  23. The end of Mycenaean civilization Possible Reasons: - Dorian invasion? - Sea Peoples? - Climate change? - War between Mycenaean kingdoms? - System collapse? - Multiple causation?