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FINAL REVIEW. PART 1: THE GODS. Mythos and Logos. Mythos = true, divine story Logos = human discourse . Myth and…. HISTORIC BACKGROUND. 1600 – 1400 Minoan Prosperous sea-power Linear A

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final review
FINAL REVIEW
  • PART 1:
  • THE GODS
mythos and logos
Mythos and Logos
  • Mythos = true, divine story
  • Logos = human discourse
historic background
HISTORIC BACKGROUND
  • 1600 – 1400 Minoan Prosperous sea-power
  • Linear A
  • 1400 – 1100 Mycenean Palace structures with monumental walls
  • Linear B
  • 1200 Trojan War
  • 1000 – 800 Dark Ages
  • 750 - 500 Archaic Period Homer, Hesiod
  • 500 - 323 Classical Period Plato
writing systems
Linear B

Used by the Mycenaeans

Deciphered by Ventris and Chadwick

Texts are in Greek

Writing Systems
  • Linear A
  • Used by the Minoans
  • So far not deciphered
slide6
Troy
  • Located by H. Schliemann
  • 9 settlements found at Troy.
  • Troy 6 or 7 identified as the Homeric Troy.
generations of gods
Generations of Gods
  • 1. From Chaos emerged:
  • Gaia, Tartarus, Night, Erebus, Eros
  • 2. Gaia gave birth to
  • Uranus, Mountains, Pontus
  • 3. Uranus and Gaia had 18 Children
  • 3 Hekatonchires, 3 Cyclopes, 12 Titans
the offspring of the titans
The Offspring of the Titans
  • Oceanus and Thetis/Tethis:
  • 50 daughters named Oceanides
  • 2. Hyperion and Theia:
  • Helios (Sun) Selene (Moon) Eos (Dawn)
  • Cronus and Rhea
  • Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Poseidon, Hades,
  • Zeus
cronus
Cronus
  • - Castrated his father Uranus from whose blood Erinyes (Furies) were born
  • - Swallowed all his children except Zeus
  • Was castrated by Zeus and vomited his other children
  • Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Poseidon, Hades
titanomachy
Cronus

Titans led by Atlas

Titanomachy
  • Zeus
  • His siblings
  • Prometheus
  • Cyclopes
  • Hekatonchires
gigantomachy
Giants, sons of Gaia

Typhon

Otus and Ephialtes

Gigantomachy
  • Zeus
creation of human beings
People created by Zeus or the Olympians:

Generations

- Gold (O)

- Silver (O)

- Bronze & Heroes (Z)

- Iron (Z)

Z. sends the flood

Deucalion and Pyrrha throw stones

People created by

Prometheus

P. steals fire

P. deprives Zeus of a better part of the sacrifice

Zeus sends Pandora

Bird of pray eating P’s liver in Caucasus

Creation of Human Beings
anthropomorphic gods
Anthropomorphic Gods
  • Human in form an character
  • Idealized mortals endowed with
  • - physical beauty
  • - intense emotions
  • - superhuman powers to:
  • * change shape
  • * become invisible
  • * fly
divine anatomy
Divine anatomy
  • ICHOR = divine blood
  • NECTAR = divine drink
  • AMBROSIA = divine food
olympians chthonic deities
Gods of the EarthOlympiansChthonic Deities
  • Twelve major deities
  • Dwelling on Mt. Olympus
nymphs
Nymphs
  • Female spirits who animate aspects of nature
  • Not necessarily immortal
  • NAIADS inhabit waters
  • DRYADS inhabit trees
fates personifications of destiny
FATES Personifications of Destiny
  • Parents: Zeus & Themis / Night & Erebus
  • CLOTHO: spins out the thread of life
  • LACHESIS: measures the thread
  • ATROPOS: cuts the thread
14 major greek deities
14 MAJOR GREEK DEITIES
  • 6 Children of Cronus and Rhea:
  • Zeus, Poseidon, Hades
  • Demeter, Hestia, Hera
  • 7 children of Zeus
  • Hephaestus, Ares, Apollo, Artemis, Heremes, Athena, Dionysus,
  • Aphrodite
zeus hera
God of the sky

Incarnation of justice and order

Bearded man with a scepter and a bolt of lightening and thunder in his hand.

Often carries his shield, the AEGIS

Mother earth

Presides over marriage

Stately woman

Accompanied by birds

Often shown with Iris the goddess of Rainbow

ZEUS & HERA
some children of zeus
…and HERA Hephaestus, Ares, Hebe,

Eileithyia

…and LETO Apollo and Artemis

…and METIS Athena

…and MAIA Hermes

…and SEMELE Dionysus

SOME Children of Zeus
two stories about the birth and youth of hephaestus
Version A

Son of Hera alone

Lame from birth

Cast out of Olympus by Hera

Version B

Son of both Zeus and Hera

Interfered on behalf of Hera

Hurled down from Olympus by Zeus

Fell on Lemnos

Two stories about the birth and youth of HEPHAESTUS
adult life of hephaestus
“Adult” Life of Hephaestus
  • Restored to Olympus
  • Married Aphrodite
  • God of the forge and its fire
  • Assisted by the three Cyclopes
  • Created masterpieces
ganymedes
GANYMEDES
  • Zeus kidnapped GANYMEDES
  • He became cupbearer to the gods
6 out of 9 muses daughters of zeus mnemosyne
6 out of 9 Muses Daughters of Zeus & Mnemosyne
  • CALLIOPE: epic poetry
  • ERATO: love poetry
  • MELPOMENE: tragedy
  • POLYHYMNIA: hymns
  • TERPSICHORE: dancing
  • URANIA: astronomy
poseidon and sea deities
Poseidon and Sea Deities
  • POSEIDON: anthropomorphic god of the sea
  • AMPHITRITE: Nereid, wife of Poseidon
  • PONTUS: “open sea” produced by Gaia
  • OCEANUS: the stream of Ocean
  • TRITON: son of Poseidon and Amphitrite
  • NEREUS: Old Man of the Sea 1
  • PROTEUS: Old Man of the Sea 2
proteus nereus
Pre-Olympian deity

Old man of the sea

Foretells the future

Changes shape

Fathered 50 daughters called NEREIDS, among them THETIS, GALATEA, and AMPHITRITE

PROTEUS& NEREUS
  • Pre-Olympian deity
  • Old man of the sea
  • Foretells the future
  • Changes shape
peleus and thetis
PELEUS AND THETIS
  • Oracle: “Thetis will bear a son mightier than his father
  • Gods avoided her
  • Peleus, a mortal, become her husband
  • The wedding of Peleus and Thetis was famous
  • They became the parents of Achilles
scylla charybdis
Daughter of Poseidon and Gaia

Drew in mountains of water and spewed them out again.

Poseidon made advances to her

Amphitrite turned her into a monster encircled with a ring of dog's heads

SCYLLA & CHARYBDIS
the contest between athena and poseidon
THE CONTEST BETWEEN ATHENA AND POSEIDON
  • Object: Control of Athens and Attica
  • Poseidon produces a salt spring or a horse
  • Athena creates an olive tree and is proclaimed the victor
athena s titles
Athena’s titles
  • PARTHENOS, virgin of the citadel
  • PALLAS TRITOGENEIA she who accidentally murdered her friend Pallas daughter of Triton
athena and arachne
ATHENA AND ARACHNE
  • ARACHNE challenged Athena to a weaving contest
  • Athena lost and turned her rival into a spider
attendants of aphrodite
ATTENDANTS OF APHRODITE
  • CHARITES: 3 Graces
  • Feminine personifications of charm and loveliness.
  • HORAE: 2 or 4 Hours or Seasons
priapus
PRIAPUS
  • Son of Aphrodite and Ares/Hermes/Adonis personifies the elemental, sexual side of his mother's nature
pygmalion
PYGMALION
  • Pygmalion falls in love with his own creation, a sculpture of a woman named Galatea
  • Aphrodite gives live to the statue
aphrodite and adonis
APHRODITE AND ADONIS
  • Aphrodite’s love for Adonis
  • Adonis’s death
  • PERSEPHONE also falls in love with in Adonis
  • They have to share: Adonis will spend one part of the year below with Persephone and one part in the upper world with Aphrodite
slide40
EROS
  • EROS 1 came out of Chaos before the birth of Aphrodite.
  • EROS 2 the son of Aphrodite and Ares
the twins
The Twins
  • Children ofZEUS and LETO
  • Born on the island of DELOS
  • Both experts at archery
  • Together killed the 7 sons and daughters of NIOBE
slide42
Saw Artemis in her bath

Was transformed into a stag

His dogs tore him to pieces

Who?
  • Tried to seduce Artemis
  • The goddess produced a scorpion that killed him
who co stars the following episodes of the story of callisto
Who co-stars the following episodes of the story of Callisto?
  • Rape
  • Rejection
  • Giving birth
  • Becoming a bear
  • Near death as bear
  • Being promoted to a constellation
characteristics of artemis
CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTEMIS
  • Vehement virgin with characteristics of a fertility goddess
  • Moon-goddess linked with the lunar cycle and menstrual period
  • Goddess of nature itself personifying its pristine purity
sanctuary of apollo at delphi
SANCTUARY OF APOLLO AT DELPHI
  • Apollo chose a place under Mt. PARNASSUS for his oracle and temple.
  • He slew a dragon named PYTHO
  • Apollo given the epithet PYTHIAN, his prophetess, PYTHIA
apollo sitting on the omphalos
Apollo sitting on the Omphalos
  • Silver tetradrachm from 3rd BCE
apollo s musical contests
Picked up the flute invented by Athena.

Challenged Apollo to a contest

Apollo won and he decided to flay him alive

Dared to engage in a contest with Apollo

TMOLUS the god of the mountain was the judge

He declared Apollo the victor

APOLLO’S MUSICAL CONTESTS
the nature of apollo
THE NATURE OF APOLLO
  • God of shepherds, associated with music
  • God of medicine
  • God of the sun PHOEBUS Apollo "bright."    
  • Symbol of classical restraint: "Know thyself"
demeter and the abduction of persephone by hades
Demeter and the abduction of Persephone by Hades
  • Persephone: daughter of Demeter and Zeus kidnapped by Hades
  • Demeter’s grief
  • Demeter in Eleusis, nurse of Demophoon, is interrupted when trying to make him immortal
  • Demeter’s anger
  • Zeus’ request that P. must return to her mother
  • Final compromise
the eleusinian procession
The Eleusinian Procession
  • Ritual cleansing
  • Torches
  • Fasting and vigil
  • Hymns and obscene jests
the sacred rites
The Sacred Rites
  • KYKEON the sacred drink
  • Dramatic performance
  • The revelation of the hiera, "sacred objects"
hades
HADES
  • Roman names: DIS, PLUTO (both names mean wealth) ORCUS by the Romans
  • God of death and agricultural plenty
three judges
Three Judges
  • MINOS RHADAMANTHUS, and AEACUS
  • Pass sentence on the just and unjust souls.
hermes psychopompus
Hermes Psychopompus
  • Hermes Psychopompus. Hermes as "leader of the soul" takes our souls, after death, to Charon
the birth of dionysus
THE BIRTH of Dionysus
  • Zeus loved SEMELE, daughter of CADMUS
  • Hera convinced Semele to trick Zeus into revealing himself
  • Semele was burned, but their unborn child was saved by Zeus
  • Dionysus was born from Zeus’ thigh and brought up by nymphs and Semele's sister Ino on a mountain named Nysa
the bacchae of euripides
THE BACCHAE OF EURIPIDES
  • Dionysus comes to Thebes where his religion is repudiated
  • The women of Thebes become possessed by frenzy
  • Deceived by Dionysus, King Pentheus participates in the rites disguised as a woman
  • He is discovered and torn to pieces by the Bacchae led by his mother AGAVE
the nature of dionysus
THE NATURE OF DIONYSUS
  • God of vegetation
  • God of wine
  • Represents the irrational in human beings
  • Dionysiac ecstasy, MANIA, combines the bestial and the sublime
dionysus zagreus
DIONYSUS-ZAGREUS
  • Son of Zeus and Persephone
  • At Hera’s request the Titans dismembered and devoured the child
  • His heart was saved
  • Dionysus was born again through Semele
  • People were created from the ashes of the Titans
the homeric hymn to hermes
THE HOMERIC HYMN TO HERMES
  • Son of Zeus and MAIA
  • Invented the lyre
  • Stole Apollo’s cattle
  • Made the first sacrifice to the 12 Olympians
  • Reconciled with Apollo
the nature of hermes
THE NATURE OF HERMES
  • God of shepherds
  • Patron of thieves and business people
  • Master of persuasion
  • Psychopompus
  • Messenger of the gods
  • Archetypal trickster
final review73
FINAL REVIEW
  • PART 2: GODS AND HEROES
week 4 review
WEEK 4 REVIEW
  • ORPHEUS & MYSTERIES
  • MYCENAE
  • THEBES
the story of orpheus and eurydice
THE STORY OF ORPHEUS AND EURYDICE
  • Eurydice died of a snake-bite on her wedding day
  • Her husband the TRACIAN singer ORPHEUS appealed to the rulers of Hades
  • Moved by his music, they granted his request
orpheus death
ORPHEUS’ DEATH
  • Unable to keep his word NOT TO LOOK BACK at Eurydice before they leave Hades,

Orpheus lost Eurydice again

  • He died torn into pieces by the Maenades
orphic message
Orphic Message…

Is linked both

to Apollo (music and poetry)

AND

to Dionysus (rebirth)

orphic myths of creation
Orphic Myths of Creation

1. PHANES

(= Eros = Dionysus)

hatched from the cosmic egg

2. Phanes gave birth to Night

3. Phanes and Night gave

Birth to Gaia and Uranus

4. Zeus is born from

Cronus and Rhea

5. Zeus swallows the world

mystery religions
MYSTERY RELIGIONS
  • Main concern:
  • The fundamental mysteries of human
  • existence:
  • life,
  • death,
  • afterlife
techniques of immortality
Techniques of Immortality
  • Secrets are revealed only to members of the religious group, the initiates
  • They involve a system of beliefs and principles that assure happiness in afterlife
mystery religions of antiquity
MYSTERY RELIGIONS OF ANTIQUITY
  • Mysteries of Dionysus
  • Orphic Mysteries of Dionysus
  • Eleusinian Mysteries of Demeter
  • Mysteries of Cybele and Attis
  • Mysteries of Isis and Osiris
  • Mysteries of Mitra
sagas and cycles
Sagas and Cycles
  • Saga, or legend = mythological story that has some basis in history
  • Cycle = a cluster of legends concerning a hero, a family, a tribe, or a city
the background of greek sagas
The background of Greek sagas
  • Late Bronze Age communities which flourished ca. 1600-1100 B.C
the sagas of thebes
THE SAGAS OF THEBES

CADMUS came to Greece in search of his sister

EUROPA

cadmus
Cadmus
  • Instructed by the oracle at Delphi, he founded Cadmeia, later called Thebes.
  • Kills a dragon
  • Sows its teeth from which sprung the Spartoi
  • Served Ares, married his daughter Harmonia
amphion and zethus
* Amphion and Zethus
  • Sons of ANTIOPE, the niece of Lycus, and Zeus
  • Brought up by a shepherd while Antiope was imprisoned by Lycus and his wife, DIRCE
  • Killed Lycus and tied Dirce to the horns of a bull that dragged her to her death
  • Became rulers of Cadmeia and sent Laius into exile
oedipus and the sphinx
Oedipus’ and the Sphinx
  • Name = Swollen foot
  • Brought up by Polybus and Merope
  • Accidentally killed Laius
  • Solved the Sphinx’ riddle
  • Married his mother
oedipus discovers his identity
Oedipus discovers his identity
  • Iocasta commits suicide
  • Oedipus blinds himself and goes to exile, accompanied by Antigone
  • Iocasta’s brother, Creon becomes king
seven against thebes
Seven against Thebes
  • Eteocles and Polynices agreed to rule in alternate years
  • Eteocles refused to give up the throne
  • Polynices raised the army “of seven leaders” and marched against Thebes
  • Both brothers died in a duel
  • Disregarding Creon’s orders, Antigone gave Polynices a symbolic burial
  • Creon condemned her to death
the trojan sagas
THE TROJAN SAGAS
  • THEILIAD and
  • THE ODYSSEY
leda s children
LEDA’S CHILDREN
  • POLYDEUCES and HELEN were immortal
  • CASTOR and CLYTEMNESTRA were mortal
paris or alexander
PARIS or Alexander
  • Took Helen as a reward for judging Aphrodite to be more beautiful than Hera and Athena…
the trojan expedition
The Trojan Expedition
  • CALCHAS warned Agamemnon that he would have to sacrifice IPHIGENIA
trojans
TROJANS
  • HECTOR
  • Leading Trojan warrior
  • Wife: ANDROMACHE; son: ASTYANAX
  • AENEAS
  • Son of Aphrodite and Anchises
  • led a band of survivors to Italy
greeks
GREEKS
  • DIOMEDES
  • With Athena’s help wounded Ares
  • GREATER AJAX
  • Strongest after Achilles
  • Defended the corpse of Patroclus
  • Was defeated by Odysseus in the contest for the arms of Achilles
the illiad
The Illiad
  • Agamemnon gives back CHRYSEÏS
  • but takes BRISEIS from Achilles
  • 2. Achilles withdraws from the battle
  • 3. Trojans are successful
  • 4. Patroclus joins the battle; Hector kills him
  • 5. Achilles returns to battle and kills Hector
  • 6. Priam ransoms Hector’s body
neglected prophecies
Neglected Prophecies
  • Cassandra’s warnings were not believed
  • LAOCOÖN, priest of Apollo protested
  • Poseidon sent two sea-monsters to murder Laokoon and his sons.
the fall of troy
The Fall of Troy
  • Priam was butchered by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles
  • Astyanax, was thrown from the walls
telemachus journey
Telemachus’ Journey
  • Helped by Athena, he goes to Pylos and Sparta to find out news of Odysseus from Nestor, Menelaüs and Helen.
the final stage of odysseus journey
The final stage of Odysseus’ journey
  • After the death of all his companions spends 7 years on Ogygia, the island of Calypso before Zeus decides to release him
  • He leaves the island on a raft and reaches the Phaeacians
  • The Phaeacians send him home
ithaca
Ithaca
  • On Ithaca, he finds his wife harassed by suitors
  • He enters his house in disguise and kills all suitors
odysseus story
Odysseus’ Story
  • Told to the Phaecians
poseidon s curse
Poseidon’s curse
  • Tied under sheep, three men escaped and went back to their ship.
  • As they sailed away, Odysseus shouted out his real name.
  • Polyphemus prayed to Poseidon for vengeance
aeolus
Aeolus
  • Aeolus king of winds gave Odysseus a bag holding all the winds
  • Just as their ships were approaching Ithaca, the crew opened the bag.
  • The winds blew them back to Aeolus, who refused to help
circe
Circe
  • The surviving ship sailed to Aeaea, home of CIRCE
  • She transformed three of Odysseus' crew into pigs
  • Odysseus himself resisted her and became her lover
  • After a year, Circe let him go
underworld
Underworld
  • At the entrance of Hades Odysseus talked with many spirits of the dead
  • Teiresias gave him instructions
between scylla and charybdis
Between Scylla and Charybdis.
  • CHARYBDIS sucked in the water three times daily
  • SCYLLA snatched six sailors and ate them
  • Odysseus chose Scylla
the cattle of helius
The Cattle of Helius
  • Odysseus’ men killed some of Helius’ cattle
  • Zeus raised a storm that sank the ship
  • Sole survivor, Odysseus drifted to Ogygia