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  1. E T R U S C A N S Molly CarlsonGeology 270APRIL 21, 2005

  2. H I S T O R Y • Disputed origins: either from West Asia, Mediterranean and surrounding civilizations or were people indigenous to Ancient Italy • Settled Tuscany and Umbria c.900 and 800 BC • The height of Etruscan power and money came around 550 B.C • Brought Urbanization to Italy • Mysterious civilization, most knowledge of Etruscans stems from funerary pieces or accounts by contemporary ancient civilizations "The Orator" - A second century BCE life-size representation of Aulus Metellus, magistrate and Master of the Etruscan Language.

  3. T E R R I T O R Y The territory spanned over north-eastern Italy between the Appenine mountain range and the Tyrrhenian Sea, and from the Arno river in the north to the Tiber river towards the center of the Italian peninsula On the Tiber river is the village of Latins, which later became Rome League of 12 City-States: • Arrezo • Cisra • Clevsin • Curtun • Pupluna • Veii • Tarchna • Vetluna • Felathri • Velzna • Velch http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/cities.html

  4. T R A D E • Sea TradeEvidence of trade throughout the MediterraneanTreaty with Carthage is only surviving treaty, but likely one of many. • Each city state renowned for specific products “Etruria’s most distinctive products were sought throughout the Mediterranean world. Fine vases, metal utensils, arms and armor, wine, grain and timber were exchanged for Baltic amber, Gaulish slaves, Athenian olive oil, Corinthian and Rhodian perfumes, or glass, faience, and ivories from Phoenicia, Syria, or Egypt.”

  5. T R A D E • Boats • Storage http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/sea.html#naval http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/art/pottery.html#amphora

  6. E T R U S C A N L I F E • Religion • Polytheistic beliefs and ritualistic practicesBelief in predestinationAll of nature and occurences in life represented the “divine will.”Ancient Romans adopted beliefs, but religion lost with onset of Christianity Arnobius, one of the first Christian apologists, living around 300CE, wrote, "Etruria is the originator and mother of all superstition" • Deities Similar to Roman and Greek gods http://www.utexas.edu/courses/romanciv/romancivimages02/liver.jpg http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/worlds_intertwined/etruscan/religion.shtml

  7. E T R U S C A N L I F E • Language Etruscans had a written language. Partially decipherable, many different dialects and interpretations. Most examples we find now are funerary inscriptions in tombs or identification of ownership on common place items (mirrors, urns)Unlike Greek and Latin, Etruscan, the third great ancient language of culture in Italy, does not survive in any great literary works. An Etruscan religious literature did exist and evidence suggests that there was a body of historical literature and drama as well. There is also evidence to suggest music and plays were written in form.

  8. E T R U S C A N A R T • Pottery Geometric c.1000 to 700 BC Orientalization Phase c. 700 BC Black and Red Figure C. 630-540 BC Bucchero 7th and early 5th century BCE. Characteristically, the ware is black, sometimes gray, and often shiny from polishing. Achieved by firing in an atmosphere charged with carbon monoxide instead of oxygen

  9. E T R U S C A N A R T • Bronzes • Artists remain unknown • First true masters of bronze works • Praised by Greek and Roman writers, techniques adopted. http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0023712.html

  10. E T R U S C A N A R T • Bronzes The Chimera of Arezzo http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Valentin/Jpeg/fullcapitolinewolf.jpg Capitoline She-wolf5th century B.C.E. Bronze. Roma, Musei Capitolini, Archivio Fotografico dei Musei Capitolini: MC1181. 75 cm. Brothers Romulus and Remus, being suckled by the wolf, were the legendary founders of Rome. They took part in the first Roman celebration of the Lupercalia, circa 753 B.C.E. Roma, Musei Capitolini, Archivio Fotografico dei Musei Capitolini Head of young Man Cervereri, 3rd Cent BCE http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/art/bronze.html

  11. E T R U S C A N A R T • Sculpture • Sarcophagus adornment • Terracotta sculptures of gods decorated temple roofs • In-organic forms, Archaic Smile Etruscan Terra Cotta Sarcophagus 520 BCE, Italian peninsula

  12. E T R U S C A N A R T • Frescoes • Decorated walls of tombs. • Light hearted celebratory scenes, celebrations of life. • Suggest Etruscan involvement in the cult of Dionysus Dancers and a harpist on an Etruscan fresco from Tarquinia, Italy. This fresco was found on the wall of a tomb and dates from c. 465 BC. http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0023712.html Fishing Scene, Tomb of Hunting & Fishing, Tarquinia http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/art/fishing.jpg

  13. E T R U S C A N A R T • Jewelry • Gold, Faience, Glass, Onyx, Carnelian • Influences: Greek, Orient, Celtic • Greeks in Etruria began the practice of carving semi-precious stones • Amulets, necklaces, mirrors, fibulas http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/art/jewels.html

  14. A R C H I T E C T U R E “Etruscan architecture looked quite different from the familiar stone temples and gleaming marble statuary of Greek architecture. Constrained by a lack of fine stone, Etruscans built their temples of wood, with terracotta roofs and ornaments. Today the wooden superstructures have almost entirely disintegrated. Only the stone foundations and the terracotta roofs and decorations remain. Fortunately, the size and types of terracottas can often tell us what the whole building looked like, and something of its history.” http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/Architec/AncientArchitectural/EtruscanArchitecture/EtruscanRepublican/EtruscanTemplebig.jpg

  15. A R C H I T E C T U R E

  16. U R B A N I Z A T I O N • Engineering, underground water pipes, pressure boxes, floor heating, introduced the construction of arch to Italy • Water Control, created clean water, prevention of rivers silting and clogging • Extensive knowledge of hydraulics controlled floods and let agriculture prosper

  17. U R B A N I Z A T I O N • At Viterbo, where the remains of Etruscan Surina lie, the underlying rock is perforated by innumerable channels, devised to drain the ground. Their construction shows that the builders had an incredibly detailed knowledge of the local geology. Below the topsoil lie volcanic formations of tufa, and beneath that again, a deeply fissured layer. • Use of Local Geology- Etruscans utilized the tufa layer of volcanic rock for both drainage and construction. http://www.italyfarmhousesrental.com/etruscan/cerveteri.htm Fig. 2Etrusco-latin cuniculus on the side of a hill near the via Torrevecchia on the outskirts of Rome (Italy). The bushes growing around the opening of the shaft are visible. The outlet of this cuniculus is on the left hand side of the photograph in correspondence with a curve in the valley. http://www.francoravelli.it/cunicoli/english/cuniculi%201987/1987.htm

  18. T H E A F T E R L I F E • Tomb sites are most of the archeological evidence of the culture • The aristocracy were buried in rich tombs or necropolises next to cities such as Tarquinia, Caere, Vulci and Veii. • Burial Styles Organized into Periods • Villanovan c. 9th-8th century BCE • Orientalizing c.850-6th century BCE • Archaic Period c. 6th-4th century BCE Caere orCerveteri http://www.utexas.edu/courses/romanciv/romancivimages02/daytwocaptions.html

  19. T H E A F T E R L I F E The Villanovan tombs: dead are cremated and buried in a biconical urn, each covered by an inverted, one-handled bowl or a helmet. Orientalizing Period Tombs: bodies are buried and not cremated. Increasing wealth and metallurgy is apparent, the dead are buried with sheet bronze objects, limestone slabs inscribed. Archaic Period Tombs: rock cut tombs are created. The dome structures create great necropolises. The interiors are decorated with frescoes. http://xenohistorian.faithweb.com/europe/villanovan_biconical_urn.jpg

  20. T H E A F T E R L I F E http://www.italyfarmhousesrental.com/etruscan/cerveteri.htm http://www.maghar.hu/etruszk/kep/CerveteriBanditacchiaKurg%E1n.jpg

  21. T H E A F T E R L I F E Inside the Tombs http://www.dialectus.com/jaimedejaraizyrosamarialencero/01estenoesmas/cerveteri-interiordeuntumulo.jpg http://www.pierreci.it/warehouse/images/necropoli_cerveteri_tomba_rilievi.jpg

  22. T H E A F T E R L I F E • Funerary Games The Tomb of the Jugglers Tomba Dei Giocolieri end of the 5th or beginning of the 6th Century BCE “The juggler tosses some disks into the vase brought by the woman (the scene probably represents a type of funerary game). The woman (juggler's assistant) has a see-through dress. Nearby is the figure of an flute player.”

  23. T H E A F T E R L I F E The Tomb of The Augurs Tomba Dei Augures Period: 530 - 480 BCE • Funerary Games “To the center of the wall two wrestlers are depicted, possibly part of the funerary games. The next scene is also probably part of the funerary games, and depicts a masked figure holding a rope in his hand. The rope is attached to the collar of a dog. When the Phersu (masked person) pulls on the rope, a nail on the dog's collar bites into its neck, enraging the animal and causing it to attack a tethered man, possibly a condemned criminal. Up until recently the names of the characters could be read. “

  24. Etruscans responsible for the civilization and foundation of the city of Rome and many other Mediterranean cities. • Contributed engineering, technology, and pottery techniques to entire Mediterranean. • Learn about them through the impact they had on other societies. “Nearly the whole of Italy was once under Etruscan Rule.” - Cato 2nd Century BCE

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