E T R U S C A N S Molly Carlson Geology 270 APRIL 21, 2005 H I S T O R Y Disputed origins: either from West Asia, Mediterranean and surrounding civilizations or were people indigenous to Ancient Italy Settled Tuscany and Umbria c.900 and 800 BC
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Molly CarlsonGeology 270APRIL 21, 2005
"The Orator" - A second century BCE life-size representation of Aulus Metellus, magistrate and Master of the Etruscan Language.
The territory spanned over north-eastern Italy between the Appenine mountain range and the Tyrrhenian Sea, and from the Arno river in the north to the Tiber river towards the center of the Italian peninsula
On the Tiber river is the village of Latins, which later became Rome
League of 12 City-States:
“Etruria’s most distinctive products were sought throughout the Mediterranean world. Fine vases, metal utensils, arms and armor, wine, grain and timber were exchanged for Baltic amber, Gaulish slaves, Athenian olive oil, Corinthian and Rhodian perfumes, or glass, faience, and ivories from Phoenicia, Syria, or Egypt.”
Similar to Roman and Greek gods
Etruscans had a written language.
Partially decipherable, many different dialects and interpretations.
Most examples we find now are funerary inscriptions in tombs or identification of ownership on common place items (mirrors, urns)Unlike Greek and Latin, Etruscan, the third great ancient language of culture in Italy, does not survive in any great literary works. An Etruscan religious literature did exist and evidence suggests that there was a body of historical literature and drama as well. There is also evidence to suggest music and plays were written in form.
Geometric c.1000 to 700 BC
Orientalization Phase c. 700 BC
Black and Red Figure C. 630-540 BC
Bucchero 7th and early 5th century BCE.
Characteristically, the ware is black, sometimes gray, and often shiny from polishing. Achieved by firing in an atmosphere charged with carbon monoxide instead of oxygen
The Chimera of Arezzo
Capitoline She-wolf5th century B.C.E. Bronze. Roma, Musei Capitolini, Archivio Fotografico dei Musei Capitolini: MC1181. 75 cm.
Brothers Romulus and Remus, being suckled by the wolf, were the legendary founders of Rome. They took part in the first Roman celebration of the Lupercalia, circa 753 B.C.E.
Roma, Musei Capitolini, Archivio Fotografico dei Musei Capitolini
Head of young Man Cervereri, 3rd Cent BCE
Etruscan Terra Cotta Sarcophagus
520 BCE, Italian peninsula
Dancers and a harpist on an Etruscan fresco from Tarquinia, Italy. This fresco was found on the wall of a tomb and dates from c. 465 BC.
Fishing Scene, Tomb of Hunting & Fishing, Tarquinia
“Etruscan architecture looked quite different from the familiar stone temples and gleaming marble statuary of Greek architecture. Constrained by a lack of fine stone, Etruscans built their temples of wood, with terracotta roofs and ornaments. Today the wooden superstructures have almost entirely disintegrated. Only the stone foundations and the terracotta roofs and decorations remain. Fortunately, the size and types of terracottas can often tell us what the whole building looked like, and something of its history.”
Fig. 2Etrusco-latin cuniculus on the side of a hill near the via Torrevecchia on the outskirts of Rome (Italy). The bushes growing around the opening of the shaft are visible. The outlet of this cuniculus is on the left hand side of the photograph in correspondence with a curve in the valley.
The Villanovan tombs: dead are cremated and buried in a biconical urn, each covered by an inverted, one-handled bowl or a helmet.
Orientalizing Period Tombs: bodies are buried and not cremated. Increasing wealth and metallurgy is apparent, the dead are buried with sheet bronze objects, limestone slabs inscribed.
Archaic Period Tombs: rock cut tombs are created. The dome structures create great necropolises. The interiors are decorated with frescoes.
Inside the Tombs
The Tomb of the Jugglers
Tomba Dei Giocolieri
end of the 5th or beginning of the 6th Century BCE
“The juggler tosses some disks into the vase brought by the woman (the scene probably represents a type of funerary game). The woman (juggler's assistant) has a see-through dress. Nearby is the figure of an flute player.”
The Tomb of The Augurs
Tomba Dei Augures
Period: 530 - 480 BCE
“To the center of the wall two wrestlers are depicted, possibly part of the funerary games.
The next scene is also probably part of the funerary games, and depicts a masked figure holding a rope in his hand. The rope is attached to the collar of a dog. When the Phersu (masked person) pulls on the rope, a nail on the dog's collar bites into its neck, enraging the animal and causing it to attack a tethered man, possibly a condemned criminal. Up until recently the names of the characters could be read. “
“Nearly the whole of Italy was once under Etruscan Rule.” - Cato 2nd Century BCE