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Central and South America

Central and South America

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Central and South America

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  1. Central and South America Jenny Aleman-Zometa Monique Quiroz Annette Diaz-Santana YesseniaVelazco

  2. Bixa Orellana Bixa Orellana

  3. Taxonomy • Family: Bixaceae (Lipstick-Tree family) • Genus: Bixa • Species name: Bixa Orellana • Common English names: Annatto, Lipstick Tree • Common Spanish names: Achote, Bija • Shrub, 6-20 meters high, age up to 50 years • Shade-intolerant, grow in disturbed areas

  4. Traditional Uses • Indigenous groups in Piura, Peru • Shoots • Diarrhea • Aphrodisiac • astringent. • Also used to treat liver disease and hepatitis. • Traditional healers in Peruvian Amazon squeezed juice from leaves • Inflammation • eye infections • Columbian traditional healers • Antivenin for snakebites • Seeds used as an expectorant • Roots used for digestion and as an anti-tussive • In Guatemala leaves and roots used for treatment of gonorrhea • Used in Caribbean folkloric medicine to treat diabetes mellitus

  5. Modern Uses • Used as food colorant • Brazilian herbal medicine • Leaf decoction • heartburn • stomach distress caused by spicy foods • mild diuretic • mild purgative. • Also used for fevers, malaria and topically to treat burns • Peru • Dried leaves boiled for 10 minutes in 1 liter of water. One cup is served warm or cold 3 times daily after meals to treat • prostate disorders, internal inflammation, arterial hypertension, high cholesterol, obesity, kidney failure, and to eliminate uric acid. • Also recommended as a vaginal antiseptic and as a wash for skin infections • United States • Used to keep a healthy cholesterol balance, combat arterial plaque and maintain healthy glucose and triglyceride levels.

  6. Active compounds • Norbixin, water-soluble annatto derivative, found to retard oxidative deterioration (2003). • Bixin is a carotenoid responsible for producing color.

  7. Research • The leaves showed some activity against gonorrhea, however the roots did not. (1995) • Crude ethanolic extracts from leaves showed potential antibacterial effect against S. aureus(2009) • Preliminary investigations performed on dogs given crude plant extracts indicate that it exhibits hypoglycaemic properties, it increased plasma insulin concentrations (2005). • Annatto extracts showed good free radical scavenging capacity and color properties, new functional applications for such extracts should be explored by the food and cosmetic industries (2008).

  8. Literature Cited • Caceres, A., H. Menendez, E. Mendez, E. Cohobon, B. E. Samayoa, E. Jauregul, E. Peralta, and G. Carillo. Atigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. (1995). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 48:85-88. • Cardarelli, C.R., M. T., Benassi, and A. Z. Mercadante. Characterization of different annatto extracts based on antioxidant and colour properties. (2008). LWT-Food Science and Technology. 41:1689-1693. • Kiokias, S., and M. H. Gordon. Antioxidant properties of annatto carotenoids (2003). Food Chemistry. 83: 523-529. • Ongsakul, M., A. Jindarat, and C. Rojanaworarit. Antibacterial effect of crude alcoholic and aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants against staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. (2009). 23:153-156. • Russell, K.R.M., E.Y. St. A. Morrison, and D. Ragoobirsingh. Hypoglycaemic activity of Bixaorellana extract in the dog. (2008). Methods Find Exp ClinPharmacol. 30:301-305. • • • •

  9. Carica Papaya

  10. Taxonomy • Division: Magnoliophyta • Class: Magnoliopsida • Order: Brassicales • Family: Caricaceae • Common names: Papaya, pawpaw, mugua, frutabomba, lechosa, melon tree -not to be confused with pawpaw (Asimina triloba) or mugua (Chaenomeles speciosa or Pseudocydonia sinensis ) *Papaya is closely related to the passionflowers (Passiflora spp) • Fruit tree, grows 6-20 ft. It has a branchless trunk and a palm like head foliage at the top. They flower and produce fruit. The trunk remains soft wooded and does not develop true bark.

  11. Growth Habit • Papaya is native to southern Mexico, Central America and northern South America. • It thrives in tropical and frost free subtropical regions and is now cultivated in most tropical countries (Brazil, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Philippines and Jamaica). -In the U.S., papaya is cultivated in Hawaii, southern California and South Florida. • First fruit tree to have its genome deciphered.

  12. Active Compounds • Papain and Chymopapain • Proteolitic enzyme that aids in digestion (breaks down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats) • Papain is obtained from a milky sap (latex) produced by the papaya. -Unripe fruit & leaves -Sex of tree • Processes of attaining the latex must be done manually and is time consuming

  13. Uses of C. Papaya • Food -The ripe fruit is usually eaten raw, without its skin or seeds. Unripe fruit is eaten cooked in curries, salads, and stews. Has a high amount of pectin, which can be used to make jellies. -Fruit juice is a popular beverage. -Black seeds are edible and have a spicy taste. Sometimes ground up and used as a substitute for black pepper -In some parts of Asia the young leaves of papaya are steamed and eaten like spinach • Cooking -Unripe fruit and tree’s leaves are rich in papain, used in tenderizing meat (check your powdered meat tenderizers) - Also used in chewing gum

  14. Uses of C. Papaya • Cosmetically -used in some toothpaste, shampoos, and face-lifting preparations • Medicine -Digestive problems, antihelmenthic (seeds also known to cause this), treatment of arthritis,diabetes, applied topically to remove freckles or brown spots on the skin -Juice is used to treat cuts, rashes, stings, ulcers, warts, burns, and cancerous growths on the skin -Infusion prepared with the flowers stimulates menstruation -Decoction prepared by boiling the ripe papaya in water is said to cure diarrhea and dysentery among children -Leaves are also made into tea as a preventative for malaria -Harrison Ford was treated for a ruptured disc incurred during filming of Indiana Jones by papain injections

  15. Uses of C. Papaya • Women in many countries (India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka…) have long used green papaya for its contraception and abortion properties. -Enslaved women from the West Indies • Medical research in animals has confirmed its contraceptive and abortion properties. -0.1-3.2 mg/ml induced spasmodic contraction of the uterine muscles -Papaya seeds have contraceptive effects in adult male langur monkeys (decrease in sperm viability and increase in sperm abnormality) -Unripe papaya in large dosages may cause this effect, however, ripe papaya is not teratogenic and will not cause miscarriage in small amounts.

  16. A few more research findings… • Fruit and seed extracts have pronounced bacterial activity as antibacterial agents against E. Coli and Staphylococcus aureus • Extract made from papaya leaves into a tea showed dramatic anticancer effects including cancers of the cervix, breast, liver, lung, and the pancreas • Juice of papaya seems to inhibit cancer growth in in vitro studies, thought to be due to lycopene or the immune system stimulation • Seed extract may help protect the kidneys

  17. References • "Papaya." Herbs To Herbs. 1 Jan. 2002. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. <>. • "Carica Papaya {Caricaceae} Papaya." EEB Greenhouse Home Page. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. <>. • "Carica Papaya." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. <>. • Nutr, J. "Papaya (Carica Papaya) Consumption Is Unsafe in Pregnancy: Fact or Fable? Scientific Evaluation of a Common Belief in Some Parts of Asia Using a Rat Model." PubMED (2002): 199-203. Http:// 01 Aug. 2002. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. • Rahmat, Asmah Et Al. "Antiproliferative Activity of Pure Lycopene Compared to Both Extracted Lycopene and Juices from Watermelon (CitrullusVulgaris) and Papaya (Carica Papaya) on Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cell Lines." Scialert (2002): 55-58. 1 Mar. 2002. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. <>. • University of Florida. "Papaya extract thwarts growth of cancer cells in lab tests." ScienceDaily 10 March 2010. 28 November 2010 • G, Yismaw. "The Invitro Assessment of Antibacterial Effect of Papaya Seed Extract against Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Urine, Wound and Stool." Unbound Medline (2008): 46. Jan. 2008. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. < extract_against_bacterial_pathogens_isolated_from_urine_wound_and_stool_>.

  18. Smilax Regelii: Sarsaparilla

  19. Taxonomy, distribution and ecology: Smilax Regelii • Family: Smilacaceae • Genus: Smilax • Species: regelii • Termed: Honduran or brown sarsaparilla • Related to Lily • Brambled Vine that can grow up to 50m • Part used: Root 6-8 feet, odorless and tasteless • Range: Northern Central America: Honduras, Caribbean and Mexico

  20. Active Compounds • Plant Steroids: sarasapogening, smilagenin, sitosterol, stigmasterol, and pollinastanol • Saponins: sarsasaponin, smilasaponin, sarsaparilloside, and silosterol glucoside • Can be synthetized into human steroidss in lab such as estrogen and testorene

  21. Ethnomedical uses • Used for centuries by the indigenous people of Central and South America for sexual impotence, rheumatism, skin ailments, and as a general tonic for physical weakness • found by New World trader and introduced into European medicine in the 1500’s • Tribes in Peru and Honduras used it for headaches, joint pain and common cold. • Shamans in the amazon use the root internally and externally for leprosy and other skin problems.

  22. Modern Uses • Main uses • Psoriasis, dermatitis, leprosy and other skin disorders • blood purifier and general detoxification aid • general tonic, stimulant and hormonal regulator • arthritis, rheumatism and autoimmune disorders which cause inflammation • Syphilis treatment • Biological Research • In 1942, it was reported in the New England Journal of Medicine to improve the condition of psoriasis dramatically • Possible mechanism of action • Sarsaponin binding to endotoxins in skin

  23. Traditional preparation • One-half to 1 cup of a standard root decoction 2-3 timesdaily. • 1-2grams of root powder in tablets or capsule daily • 2-3 ml of a standard tincture of fluid extract may be taken twice a day • Soft drinks and beverages

  24. Sources "Database Entry: Sarsaparilla - Smilax Officinalis, Sarsaparilla, Smilax Aristolochiaefolia, Smilax Glabra, Sarsaparilla, Smilax Febrifuga, Smilx Ornata, Chinese Sarsaparilla, Smilax Regelii, Smilax Japicanga." Wealth of the Rainforest - Pharmacy to the World from Raintree Nutrition, Inc. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <>. "Smilax Regelii Information from NPGS/GRIN." GRIN National Genetic Resources Program. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <>. "Smilax Regelii." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <>.

  25. Mimosa pudica Yessenia Velazco

  26. GENERAL INFORMATION • Mimosa pudica (Sensitive Plant) (pudica = shy), is a creeping annual or perennial herb. • Also known as sensitive plant, humble plant, shameful plant, sleeping grass, touch-me-not. • It belongs to the Magnoliopsida group, familiy Fabaceae, and sub-family Mimosaceae • The species is native to South America and Central America, but is now a pantropical weed. • It grows in most well-drained soils and soils with low concentrations of nutrients. • Repeated burning encourage its spread in pastures. • Sensitive plant is shade intolerant and does not compete with tall vegetation or grow under forest canopies.

  27. TRADITIONAL USES • Ayurvedic medicine used its root in the treatment of leprosy, dysentery, vaginal and uterine complaints, inflammations, burning sensation, asthma, and blood diseases. • Unani healthcare system used its root in the treatment of diseases arising from blood impurities and bile, bilious fevers, jaundice, and leprosy. • Decoction of root was used with water to gargle to reduce toothache. • It is very useful in diarrhea (athisaara), amoebic dysentery (raktaatisaara), bleeding piles, and urinary infections. • It is mainly used in herbal preparations for gynecological disorders, bronchitis, general weakness and impotence.

  28. Modern Uses • In Western medicine, Mimosa pudica’s root is used for treating insomnia, irritability, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), hemorrhoids, skin wounds, and diarrhea. • It is also used to treat whooping cough and fevers in children, and there is some evidence to suggest that it effective in relieving the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. • All parts of the Mimosa plant are reportedly toxic if taken directly. Its consumption is not recommended to pregnant or nursing ladies. Due to these reports, it seems to be best to consult a physician before using Mimosa internally. • RESEARCH • Research regarding safety in young children or those with severe liver or kidney disease have not been found. • Mimosa mucilage is a promising mucoadhesive polymer for deliver of buccal drugs. • A research study was conducted at the Department of Chemistry, Cotton College, Assam, India (August 2007). The researchers found that the components present in the roots of the herb changed the timings of the release of many birth associated hormones leading to extension of pregnancy. They concluded that the herb posses anti-fertility properties.

  29. Active components Mimosine: • Toxic alkaloid. • Immobilizes the filariform larvae of Strongyloidesstercoralis in less than one hour. • Potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. • Appears to inhibit the myotoxicity and enzyme activity of cobra venom. • Adrenalin like substance has been identified in the extract of its leaves. • Some workers have reported the presence of Crocetindimethyl Easter in the extract of the plant. • Roots contain tannin up to 10% and seeds contain a mucilage. • The plant extract contains green yellow fatty oil up to 17%. • The plant is reported to contain tubuline and a new class phytohormoneturgorines is found to be active in the plant.

  30. Remarkable Feature Mimosa pudica is remarkable because of its: Nyctinastic and seismonastic movements. The movements are the result of a rapid loss of pressure in strategically situated cells that cause the leaves to droop right before one’s eyes. This evidence led to the rejection of the hypothesis that Mimosa pudica had nerves and muscles.

  31. REFERENCES Ahuja M., S. Kumar, M. Yadav. Evaluation of Mimosa Seed Mucilage as Bucoadhesive Polymer. (2010). The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 130: 937-944.