Central and South America. Jenny Aleman- Zometa Monique Quiroz Annette Diaz-Santana Yessenia Velazco. Bixa Orellana. Bixa Orellana. Taxonomy. Family: Bixaceae (Lipstick-Tree family) Genus: Bixa Species name: Bixa Orellana Common English names: Annatto, Lipstick Tree
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-not to be confused with pawpaw (Asimina triloba) or mugua (Chaenomeles speciosa or Pseudocydonia sinensis )
*Papaya is closely related to the passionflowers (Passiflora spp)
-In the U.S., papaya is cultivated in Hawaii, southern California and South Florida.
-Unripe fruit & leaves
-Sex of tree
-The ripe fruit is usually eaten raw, without its skin or seeds. Unripe fruit is eaten cooked in curries, salads, and stews. Has a high amount of pectin, which can be used to make jellies.
-Fruit juice is a popular beverage.
-Black seeds are edible and have a spicy taste. Sometimes ground up and used as a substitute for black pepper
-In some parts of Asia the young leaves of papaya are steamed and eaten like spinach
-Unripe fruit and tree’s leaves are rich in papain, used in tenderizing meat (check your powdered meat tenderizers)
- Also used in chewing gum
-used in some toothpaste, shampoos, and face-lifting preparations
-Digestive problems, antihelmenthic (seeds also known to cause this), treatment of arthritis,diabetes, applied topically to remove freckles or brown spots on the skin
-Juice is used to treat cuts, rashes, stings, ulcers, warts, burns, and cancerous growths on the skin
-Infusion prepared with the flowers stimulates menstruation
-Decoction prepared by boiling the ripe papaya in water is said to cure diarrhea and dysentery among children
-Leaves are also made into tea as a preventative for malaria
-Harrison Ford was treated for a ruptured disc incurred during filming of Indiana Jones by papain injections
-Enslaved women from the West Indies
-0.1-3.2 mg/ml induced spasmodic contraction of the uterine muscles
-Papaya seeds have contraceptive effects in adult male langur monkeys (decrease in sperm viability and increase in sperm abnormality)
-Unripe papaya in large dosages may cause this effect, however, ripe papaya is not teratogenic and will not cause miscarriage in small amounts.
"Database Entry: Sarsaparilla - Smilax Officinalis, Sarsaparilla, Smilax Aristolochiaefolia, Smilax Glabra, Sarsaparilla, Smilax Febrifuga, Smilx Ornata, Chinese Sarsaparilla, Smilax Regelii, Smilax Japicanga." Wealth of the Rainforest - Pharmacy to the World from Raintree Nutrition, Inc. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.rain-tree.com/sarsaparilla.htm>.
"Smilax Regelii Information from NPGS/GRIN." GRIN National Genetic Resources Program. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?400333>.
"Smilax Regelii." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smilax_regelii>.
Mimosa pudica is remarkable because of its: Nyctinastic and seismonastic movements. The movements are the result of a rapid loss of pressure in strategically situated cells that cause the leaves to droop right before one’s eyes. This evidence led to the rejection of the hypothesis that Mimosa pudica had nerves and muscles.
Ahuja M., S. Kumar, M. Yadav. Evaluation of Mimosa Seed Mucilage as Bucoadhesive Polymer. (2010). The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 130: 937-944.